Concept: Opposition to the Iraq War
Salman Rawaf discusses the implications of the most recent estimate of excess deaths associated with the Iraq war and subsequent occupation in the context of the current situation in Iraq. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Millions of people witnessed early, repeated television coverage of the September 11 (9/11), 2001, terrorist attacks and were subsequently exposed to graphic media images of the Iraq War. In the present study, we examined psychological- and physical-health impacts of exposure to these collective traumas. A U.S. national sample (N = 2,189) completed Web-based surveys 1 to 3 weeks after 9/11; a subsample (n = 1,322) also completed surveys at the initiation of the Iraq War. These surveys measured media exposure and acute stress responses. Posttraumatic stress symptoms related to 9/11 and physician-diagnosed health ailments were assessed annually for 3 years. Early 9/11- and Iraq War-related television exposure and frequency of exposure to war images predicted increased posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 to 3 years after 9/11. Exposure to 4 or more hr daily of early 9/11-related television and cumulative acute stress predicted increased incidence of health ailments 2 to 3 years later. These findings suggest that exposure to graphic media images may result in physical and psychological effects previously assumed to require direct trauma exposure.
Longitudinal Associations among Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Neurocognitive Functioning in Army Soldiers Deployed to the Iraq War
- Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS
- Published over 2 years ago
Military deployment is associated with increased risk of adverse emotional and cognitive outcomes. Longitudinal associations involving posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), relatively mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), and neurocognitive compromise are poorly understood, especially with regard to long-term outcomes, and rigorous research is necessary to better understand the corresponding relationships. The objective of this study was to examine short-term and long-term (>5 years) longitudinal associations among PTSD, neurocognitive performance, and TBI following military deployment.
An October 14, 2014 article in The New York Times reported that the US Department of Defense (DoD) concealed, for nearly a decade, circumstances surrounding service members' exposure to chemical warfare agents (CWA) while deployed to Iraq in support of Operations Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn from March 13, 2003, to December 31, 2011, and alleged failure of the DoD to provide expedient and adequate medical care. This report prompted the DoD to devise a public health investigation, with the Army Public Health Center (Provisional) as the lead agency to identify, evaluate, document, and track CWA casualties of the Iraq war. Further, the DoD revisited and revised clinical guidelines and health policies concerning CWA exposure based on current evidence-based guidelines and best practices.
This study sought to identify vascular injury patterns among combat-specific cavalry scout personnel within the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars.
This article proposes distinctions between guilt and two forms of shame: Guilt arises from a violated norm and is characterized by a focus on specific behavior; shame can be characterized by a threatened social image (Image Shame) or a threatened moral essence (Moral Shame). Applying this analysis to group-based emotions, three correlational studies are reported, set in the context of atrocities committed by (British) ingroup members during the Iraq war (Ns = 147, 256, 399). Results showed that the two forms of shame could be distinguished. Moreover, once the other form of shame was controlled for, they were differentially related to orientations toward the outgroup: Image Shame was associated with negative orientations, whereas Moral Shame had associations with positive outgroup orientations. These associations were distinct from the associations of guilt and rejection. Study 3 used a longitudinal design and provided evidence suggestive of a causal direction from emotions to outgroup orientation.
Since the onset of the Iraq war and Afghanistan conflicts, military healthcare teams have had increasing exposure to the traumatic effects of caring for wounded warriors, leading to a phenomenon termed compassion fatigue. The purpose of this integrative review was to develop a proposed definition for compassion fatigue in support of these teams. There is no current standardized formal definition, and this lack of clarity can inhibit intervention. Seven main themes evolved from the literature review and were integrated with the core elements of the Bandura Social Cognitive Theory Model as the first step in developing a uniformed definition.
The public health consequences of the Iraq War (2003-2011) have remained difficult to quantify, mainly due to a scarcity of adequate data. This paper is the first to assess whether and to what extent the war affected neonatal polio immunisation coverage.
PURPOSE: Diarrhoea and vomiting (D & V) was common in military personnel during deployment to the initial phases of the Iraq war. D & V is an established risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study examined the prevalence of IBS in a military sample with a history of deployment to Iraq and the association between D & V and common mental disorder (CMD) with IBS. METHODS: The study used data from a two-phase cohort study of military/personnel. The sample was restricted to individuals who had been deployed to Iraq before phase 1 of the study and who had completed the self-report D & V question. A measure of probable IBS was derived at both phases of the study based on self-reported symptoms in the previous month. CMD was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). RESULTS: Fifty-nine percent of the sample reported a D & V event and 6.6 % met the criteria for probable IBS at phase 1. Reporting D & V, thinking one might be killed on deployment, poor physical health and CMD were associated with probable IBS at phase 1. CMD at phase 1 was strongly associated with chronic symptoms of IBS. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of D & V during deployment to the early stages of the Iraq war, yet the prevalence of probable IBS on return from deployment was relatively low. D & V was strongly associated with IBS after deployment, and CMD was a risk factor for chronic symptoms of IBS.
Research involving military service members has shown a strong relationship between combat experiences and increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems. Comparatively little research has examined the relationship between combat experiences, PTSD, aggression, and unethical conduct on the battlefield, although news stories sometimes suggest links between unethical conduct and disorders such as PTSD. This study systematically examined whether unethical conduct is a proxy for aggression and whether specific combat experiences and PTSD are independently associated with unethical behavior. The results of this study indicate that aggression (β = 0.30) and specific combat experiences (particularly, witnessing war atrocities [β = 0.14] and fighting [β = 0.13]) are much more strongly associated with unethical conduct than is PTSD (β = 0.04).