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Concept: Oils

168

BACKGROUND: Pelargonium graveolens (P. graveolens) L. is an aromatic and medicinal plant belonging to the geraniacea family. RESULTS: The chemical compositions of the essential oil as well as the in vitro antimicrobial activities were investigated. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil revealed 42 compounds. Linallol L, Citronellol, Geraniol, 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl, formate and Selinene were identified as the major components. The tested oil and organic extracts exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect against a panel of microorganisms with diameter inhibition zones ranging from 12 to 34 mm and MICs values from 0.039 to10 mg/ml. The investigation of the phenolic content showed that EtOAc, MeOH and water extracts had the highest phenolic contents. CONCLUSION: Overall, results presented here suggest that the essential oil and organic extracts of P. graveolens possesses antimicrobial and properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry.

Concepts: Rose, Rose oil, Oils, Water, Pharmacology, Pelargonium graveolens, Essential oil, Oil

152

Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus is an aquatic macrophyte; it is known as a wild edible plant in Japan for a long time. In this study, the essential oils from the fresh and dried aerial parts of R. nipponicus var. submersus were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, important aroma-active compounds were also detected in the oil using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thus, 98 compounds (accounting for 93.86%) of the oil were identified. The major compounds in fresh plant oil were phytol (41.94%), heptadecane (5.92%), and geranyl propionate (5.76%), while those of. Dried plant oil were β-ionone (23.54%), 2-hexenal (8.75%), and dihydrobovolide (4.81%). The fresh and dried oils had the green-floral and citrus-floral odor, respectively. The GC-O and AEDA results show that phenylacetaldehyde (green, floral odor, FD-factor = 8) and β-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 8) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the fresh oils. β-Cyclocitral (citrus odor, FD-factor = 64) and β-ionone (violet-floral odor, FD-factor = 64) were the most characteristic odor compounds of the dried oil. These compounds are thought to contribute to the flavor of R. nipponicus var. submersus.

Concepts: Aroma compound, Gas chromatography, Fat, Chemical compound, Water, Oil, Oils, Essential oil

145

This article describes the various chemical components as obtained from the oils in the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus using hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Furthermore, extractions of the oils were also carried out with a slight in pH variation and compared, “GC-MS evaluation of C. citratus (DC) Stapf oil obtained using modified hydrodistillation and microwave extraction methods” (Ajayi et al., 2016 [1]). The current article contains one table exhibiting a list of compounds in the four different methods of extraction. Comparative studies amongst the various methods of extraction are highlighted in the table.

Concepts: Oils, Essential oil, Chemical compound, Cymbopogon citratus, Oil, Cymbopogon

28

Volatile compounds play a key role in determining the sensory appreciation of vegetable oils. In this study a systematic evaluation of odorants responsible for the characteristic flavour of roasted tigernut oil was carried out.

Concepts: Oil, Oils, Essential oil, Cyperus rotundus, Fat, Cyperus, Cyperus esculentus

28

Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm (tejpat) and Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr (pimento) leaves are commonly used for flavouring food and widely used in pharmaceutical preparations because of their hypoglycemic, carminative and stimulant properties. In this study, we compared the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of tejpat and pimento essential oils by employing various in vitro methods. GC and GC-MS analyses were done to find out the chemical composition, and the main constituent identified in tejpat and pimento leaf oils was eugenol. Both the oils showed significant radical scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide radicals with a potent metal chelating activity and were compared with that of standard compound, eugenol. Among the two oils, tejpat oil showed better activity in terms of antioxidative potential.

Concepts: Cinnamomum, Malabathrum, Oils, Allspice, Oil, Bay leaf, Essential oil, Cinnamon

28

Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika - Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), β-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and α-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC(50) values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied.

Concepts: Morocco, Oils, Salvia fruticosa, Salvia, Plant, Oil, Salvia officinalis, Essential oil

28

The European Medicines Agency concluded that there is a risk of suppositories containing terpenic derivatives, which are used to treat coughs and colds, inducing neurological disorders, especially convulsions, in infants and small children. Terpenic derivatives are found in essential oils obtained from plants and include camphor, eucalyptol (syn. 1,8-cineol), thujone, and menthol. Chemistry, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of these compounds are clearly different and explain the appearance of convulsions following camphor, thujone, and eucalyptus oil overdose/poisoning, whereas no convulsions have been reported in cases of menthol overdose/poisoning in accordance with the pharmacological properties of menthol. Thus, a general verdict on all terpenic derivatives without differentiation appears inappropriate.

Concepts: Oils, Eucalyptol, Oil, Eucalyptus, Pharmacy, Camphor, Eucalyptus oil, Essential oil

26

BACE-1 is an aspartic protease involved in the conversion of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to amyloid-β (Aβ) in vivo, which is one of the key steps in the development and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. In a previous screening procedure for inhibitors of BACE-1 activity, the oil of Lavandula luisieri was identified as the most potent among several essential oils. The inhibitory effect of this essential oil on Aβ production was also demonstrated in a cellular assay. The composition of the volatile oil and the isolation of the compound responsible for the inhibitory activity were also reported. The present work focused on the characterization of the inhibition of BACE-1 by this active compound, a monoterpene necrodane ketone, 2,3,4,4-tetramethyl-5-methylenecyclopent-2-enone (1), with assessment of its Ki value and the type of inhibition. The dose-related effects of the compound were also evaluated using two different cell lines, with determinations of the respective EC50 values. The entire oil and the 2,3,4,4-tetramethyl-5-methylenecyclopent-2-enone (1) were tested on a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. The overall results showed that compound 1 displayed a dose-dependent inhibition of BACE-1 in cellular and mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease and is therefore capable of passing through cellular membranes and the blood-brain barrier.

Concepts: Presenilin, Amyloid precursor protein, Aromatherapy, Lavender, Oils, Alzheimer's disease, Oil, Essential oil

26

The aim of this study was to determine the essential oil content and composition of Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC.) Boiss., a rare species spread in flora of Turkey. The samples were collected during the fructifying period of the plant from Erzincan, Turkey, at an altitude of 2430 m, in 2010. Essential oils were obtained from different parts of the plant such as fruits and herbal parts with Clevenger apparatus by hydro-distillation. Essential oil contents of the plant material were 0.38 ± 0.015%, 0.23 ± 0.012% and 0.21 ± 0.015% from fruits, herbal parts with fruits and herbal parts without fruits, respectively. Composition of essential oil was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oil of the herbal parts of the plant was dominated by fatty alcohols and aldehydes which accounted for 73.10% and 24.64%, respectively. Myristyl alcohol (1-tetradecanol) was identified as a major component of essential oil with an average content of 73.10%.

Concepts: Oils, Petroleum, Plant, Oil, Ethanol, Fatty alcohol, Alcohol, Essential oil

25

The economic burdens and health implications of food spoilage are increasing. Contamination of food sources by fungi, bacteria, yeast, nematodes, insects, and rodents remains a major public health concern. Research has focused on developing safer natural products and innovations to meet consumers' acceptance as alternatives to synthetic food preservatives. Many recent novel preservative techniques and applications of both natural and synthetic origin continue to proliferate in food and chemical industries. In particular, some essential oils of plant origin are potent food preservatives and are thus attractive alternatives to synthetic preservatives. This paper provides an overview of recent advances and future prospects in assessing the efficacy of theuse of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) essential oil in food preservation. The possible mechanisms of action and toxicological profile as well as evidence for or against the use of this essential oil as an alternative to synthetic food preservatives in domestic and industrial applications are discussed.

Concepts: Food, Oils, Oil, Cymbopogon citratus, Preservative, Essential oil, Cymbopogon, Food preservation