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Concept: Ohio


International Conference on Nanopore Technology (Shenzhen), 30 March-1 April 2017, Shenzhen, China The International Conference on Nanopore Technology (Shenzhen) was held from 30 March to 1 April 2017 in Shenzhen, China. The goal of the meeting was threefold: leverage the unique properties of nanopore technology to promote transformative advances in medicine, encourage cross-disciplinary collaborations in the research community within China and abroad; and discuss critical challenges that need to be addressed to rapidly advance the field. The meeting was chaired by Peixuan Guo, Endowed chair professor and Director of The Center for RNA Nanobiotechnology & Nanomedicine at The Ohio State University, USA and co-chaired by Xian-En Zhang, distinguished professor of the Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. The conference was attended by more than 300 academic researchers, hospital administrators, government leaders and scientists from many disciplines across the country from both academic institutions and industry.

Concepts: United States, Science, Management, University, Ohio, Hong Kong, Tenure, Ohio State University


Activities of fast growing human population are altering freshwater ecosystems, endangering their inhabitants and public health. Organic and trace compounds have a high potential for adverse impacts on aquatic organisms in some Great Lakes tributaries. Toxic compounds in tissues of organisms living in contaminated environments change their metabolism and alter cellular components. We measured oxidatively induced DNA damage in the soft tissues of dreissenid mussels to check on the possible contaminant-induced impact on their DNA. The animals were obtained from archived samples of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Mussel Watch Program. Mussels were collected from the harbor of Ashtabula River in Ohio, and a reference area located at the Lake Erie shore. Using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with isotope dilution, we identified and quantified numerous oxidatively modified DNA bases and 8,5'-cyclopurine-2'-deoxynucleosides. We found significant differences in the concentrations of these potentially mutagenic and/or lethal lesions in the DNA of mussels from the harbor as compared to the animals collected at the reference site. These results align NOAA’s data showing that elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and heavy metals were found in mussels within the harbor as compared to mussels collected in the reference site. The measured DNA lesions can be used as biomarkers for identifying DNA damage in mussels from polluted and reference sites. Such biomarkers are needed to identify the bioeffects of contaminants in affected organisms, as well as whether remedial actions have proven successful in reducing observed toxic effects.

Concepts: DNA, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Biphenyl, Ohio, Great Lakes, Zebra mussel, Ashtabula, Ohio


A heated purge-and-trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was used to determine the cis- and trans-isomers of (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (4-MCHM), the reported major component of the Crude MCHM/Dowanol™ PPh glycol ether material spilled into the Elk River upriver from Charleston, West Virginia, on January 9, 2014. The trans-isomer eluted first and method detection limits were 0.16-μgL(-1)trans-, 0.28-μgL(-1)cis-, and 0.4-μgL(-1) Total (total response of isomers) 4-MCHM. Estimated concentrations in the spill source material were 491-gL(-1)trans- and 277-gL(-1)cis-4-MCHM, the sum constituting 84% of the source material assuming its density equaled 4-MCHM. Elk River samples collected⩽3.2km downriver from the spill on January 15 had low (⩽2.9μgL(-1) Total) 4-MCHM concentrations, whereas the isomers were not detected in samples collected 2 d earlier at the same sites. Similar 4-MCHM concentrations (range 4.2-5.5μgL(-1) Total) occurred for samples of the Ohio River at Louisville, Kentucky, on January 17, ∼630km downriver from the spill. Total 4-MCHM concentrations in Charleston, WV, office tap water decreased from 129μgL(-1) on January 27 to 2.2μgL(-1) on February 3, but remained detectable in tap samples through final collection on February 25 indicating some persistence of 4-MCHM within the water distribution system. One isomer of methyl 4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate was detected in all Ohio River and tap water samples, and both isomers were detected in the source material spilled.

Concepts: Ohio River, Ohio, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Louisville, Kentucky, Huntington, West Virginia, Kanawha River


Addressing population declines of migratory insects requires linking populations across different portions of the annual cycle and understanding the effects of variation in weather and climate on productivity, recruitment, and patterns of long-distance movement. We used stable H and C isotopes and geospatial modeling to estimate the natal origin of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America using over 1000 monarchs collected over almost four decades at Mexican overwintering colonies. Multinomial regression was used to ascertain which climate-related factors best-predicted temporal variation in natal origin across six breeding regions. The region producing the largest proportion of overwintering monarchs was the US Midwest (mean annual proportion = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.36-0.41) followed by the north-central (0.17; 0.14-0.18), northeast (0.15; 0.11-0.16), northwest (0.12; 0.12-0.16), southwest (0.11; 0.08-0.12), and southeast (0.08; 0.07-0.11) regions. There was no evidence of directional shifts in the relative contributions of different natal regions over time, which suggests these regions are comprising the same relative proportion of the overwintering population in recent years as in the mid-1970s. Instead, interannual variation in the proportion of monarchs from each region covaried with climate, as measured by the Southern Oscillation Index and regional-specific daily maximum temperature and precipitation, which together likely dictate larval development rates and food plant condition. Our results provide the first robust long-term analysis of predictors of the natal origins of monarchs overwintering in Mexico. Conservation efforts on the breeding grounds focused on the Midwest region will likely have the greatest benefit to eastern North American migratory monarchs, but the population will likely remain sensitive to regional and stochastic weather patterns.

Concepts: United States, Climate change, North America, Region, Illinois, Ohio, Midwestern United States, Indiana


The 2012 Varsity Medical Debate between Oxford University and Cambridge University provided a stage for representatives from these famous institutions to debate the motion “This house believes that trainee doctors should be able to use the developing world to gain clinical experience.” This article brings together many of the arguments put forward during the debate, centring around three major points of contention: the potential intrinsic wrong of ‘using’ patients in developing countries; the effects on the elective participant; and the effects on the host community. The article goes on to critically appraise overseas elective programmes, offering a number of solutions that would help optimise their effectiveness in the developing world.

Concepts: Effectiveness, Developing country, Francis Crick, Ohio, University of Oxford, Cambridge, University of Cambridge, Oxbridge


Mercury (Hg) emissions pose a global problem that requires global cooperation for a solution. However, neither emissions nor regulations are uniform world-wide, and hence the impacts of regulations are also likely to vary regionally. We report here an approach to model the effectiveness of regulations at different scales (local, regional, global) in reducing Hg deposition and fish Hg concentrations in the Laurentian Great Lakes (GL) region. The potential effects of global change on deposition are also modeled. We focus on one of the most vulnerable communities within the region, an Indigenous tribe in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula (UP) with a high fish consumption rate. For the GL region, elements of global change (climate, biomass burning, land use) are projected to have modest impacts (<5% change from the year 2000) on Hg deposition. For this region, our estimate of the effects of elimination of anthropogenic emissions is a 70% decrease in deposition, while our minimal regulation scenario increases emissions by 35%. Existing policies have the potential to reduce deposition by 20% with most of the reduction attributable to U.S. policies. Local policies within the Great Lakes region show little effect, and global policy as embedded in the Minamata Convention is projected to decrease deposition by approximately 2.8%. Even within the GL region, effects of policy are not uniform; areas close to emission sources (Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania) experience larger decreases in deposition than other areas including Michigan's UP. The UP landscape is highly sensitive to Hg deposition, with nearly 80% of lakes estimated to be impaired. Sensitivity to mercury is caused primarily by the region's abundant wetlands. None of the modeled policy scenarios are projected to reduce fish Hg concentrations to the target that would be safe for the local tribe. Regions like Michigan's UP that are highly sensitive to mercury deposition and that will see little reduction in deposition due to regulations require more aggressive policies to reduce emissions to achieve recovery. We highlight scientific uncertainties that continue to limit our ability to accurately predict fish Hg changes over time.

Concepts: Lake, United States, Lake Superior, Michigan, Ohio, Great Lakes, Lake Michigan, Upper Peninsula of Michigan


Annual cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis have occurred in western Lake Erie (USA/Canada) during summer months since 1995. The production of toxins by bloom-forming cyanobacteria can lead to drinking water crises, such as the one experienced by the city of Toledo in August of 2014, when the city was rendered without drinking water for > 2 days. It is important to understand the conditions and environmental cues that were driving this specific bloom to provide a scientific framework for management of future bloom events. To this end, samples were collected and metatranscriptomes generated coincident with the collection of environmental metrics for eight sites located in the western basin of Lake Erie, including a station proximal to the water intake for the city of Toledo. These data were used to generate a basin-wide ecophysiological fingerprint of Lake Erie Microcystis populations in August 2014 for comparison to previous bloom communities. Our observations and analyses indicate that, at the time of sample collection, Microcystis populations were under dual nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stress, as genes involved in scavenging of these nutrients were being actively transcribed. Targeted analysis of urea transport and hydrolysis suggests a potentially important role for exogenous urea as a nitrogen source during the 2014 event. Finally, simulation data suggest a wind event caused microcystin-rich water from Maumee Bay to be transported east along the southern shoreline past the Toledo water intake. Coupled with a significant cyanophage infection, these results reveal that a combination of biological and environmental factors led to the disruption of the Toledo water supply. This scenario was not atypical of re-occurring Lake Erie blooms and thus may re-occur in the future.

Concepts: Water, Nitrogen, Ohio, Water crisis, Water supply network, Lake Erie, Maumee River, Toledo, Ohio


The composition and metabolic activities of microbes in drinking water distribution systems can affect water quality and distribution system integrity. In order to understand regional variations in drinking water microbiology in the upper Ohio River watershed, the chemical and microbiological constituents of 17 municipal distribution systems were assessed. While sporadic variations were observed, the microbial diversity was generally dominated by fewer than 10 taxa, and was driven by the amount of disinfectant residual in the water. Overall, Mycobacterium spp. (Actinobacteria), MLE1-12 (phylum Cyanobacteria), Methylobacterium spp., and sphingomonads were the dominant taxa. Shifts in community composition from Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria to Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria were associated with higher residual chlorine. Alpha- and beta-diversity were higher in systems with higher chlorine loads, which may reflect changes in the ecological processes structuring the communities under different levels of oxidative stress. These results expand the assessment of microbial diversity in municipal distribution systems and demonstrate the value of considering ecological theory to understand the processes controlling microbial makeup. Such understanding may inform the management of municipal drinking water resources.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Bacteria, Microbiology, Water, Microorganism, Mississippi River, Ohio River, Ohio


Restructuring primary care is essential to achieve the triple aim. This case study examines the human factors of extensive redesign on 2 midsized primary care clinics (clinics A and B) in the Midwest United States that are owned by a large health care system. The transition occurred when while the principles for patient-centered medical home were being rolled out nationally, and before the Affordable Care Act.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, United States, Ohio, Kentucky, Midwestern United States, Wisconsin, Great Lakes region


Pain and anxiety control is critical in dental practice. Moderate sedation is a useful adjunct in managing a variety of conditions that make it difficult or impossible for some people to undergo certain dental procedures. The purpose of this study was to analyze the sedation protocols used in 3 dental specialty programs at the Case Western Reserve University School of Dental Medicine, Cleveland, OH.

Concepts: Dentistry, Ohio, Cleveland Clinic, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland Institute of Music, University Circle