SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Observational study

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 To examine changes in representation of women among first authors of original research published in high impact general medical journals from 1994 to 2014 and investigate differences between journals.

Concepts: Scientific method, Observational study, Academic publishing, Research, Woman, Author

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Observational studies have demonstrated an association between decreased vitamin D level and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS); however, it remains unclear whether this relationship is causal. We undertook a Mendelian randomization (MR) study to evaluate whether genetically lowered vitamin D level influences the risk of MS.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Genetics, Observational study, Multiple sclerosis, Vitamins

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The anticancer effects of legumes have been explored extensively, but evidence from epidemiologic studies on colorectal adenoma is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to assess these issues.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Observational study, Meta-analysis, Legume, Legumes

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Is a higher use of resources by physicians associated with a reduced risk of malpractice claims?

Concepts: Observational study, Physician, Malpractice

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Delirium has become better studied, but is still only partially understood and significantly underestimated. There are some well-known risk factors, but little is known about the incidence of delirium in the diverse patient population of a post anesthesia care unit (PACU). The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of delirium using the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (NU-DESC).

Concepts: Scientific method, Patient, Observational study, Sociology, Anesthesia, Knowledge, Cultural studies, Post anesthesia care unit

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Evaluation of Xagrid® Efficacy and Long-term Safety, a Phase IV, prospective, non interventional study performed in 13 European countries enrolled high risk essential thrombocythemia patients treated with cytoreductive therapy. Primary objectives were safety and pregnancy outcomes. Of 3721 registered patients, 3649 received cytoreductive therapy. At registration, 3611 were receiving: anagrelide (Xagrid®) (n=804), other cytoreductive therapy (n=2666), anagrelide + other cytoreductive therapy (n=141). Median age was 56 vs 70 years for anagrelide vs other cytoreductive therapy. Event rates (patients with events/100 patient years) were, for total thrombosis 1.62 vs 2.06, venous thrombosis 0.15 vs 0.53. Anagrelide was more commonly associated with hemorrhage (0.89 vs 0.43), especially with anti-aggregatory therapy (1.35 vs 0.33) and myelofibrosis (1.04 vs 0.30). Other cytoreductive therapies were more associated with acute leukemia (AL) (0.28 vs 0.07) and other malignancies (1.29 vs 0.44). Post-hoc multivariate analyses identified increased risk for thrombosis with prior thrombohemorrhagic events, age ≥65, cardiovascular risk factors, or hypertension. Risk factors for transformation were prior thrombohemorrhagic events, age ≥65, time since diagnosis, and platelet count increase. Safety analysis reflected published data and no new safety concerns for anagrelide were found. Live births occurred in 41/54 pregnancies (76%). (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00567502).

Concepts: Scientific method, Blood, Observational study, Platelet, Multivariate statistics, Essential thrombocytosis, Phase IV, Anagrelide

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We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the adverse event (AE) profile of paracetamol.

Concepts: Scientific method, Systematic review, Observational study

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What is the association between day of delivery and measures of quality and safety of maternity services, particularly comparing weekend with weekday performance?

Concepts: Scientific method, Childbirth, Observational study, The Association, Sunshine pop

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Austerity measures and health-system redesign to minimise hospital expenditures risk adversely affecting patient outcomes. The RN4CAST study was designed to inform decision making about nursing, one of the largest components of hospital operating expenses. We aimed to assess whether differences in patient to nurse ratios and nurses' educational qualifications in nine of the 12 RN4CAST countries with similar patient discharge data were associated with variation in hospital mortality after common surgical procedures.

Concepts: Patient, Risk, Observational study, Surgery, Educational psychology, Nursing, Nurse, Expense