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Concept: Objective pronoun


Monitoring athlete well-being is essential to guide training and to detect any progression towards negative health outcomes and associated poor performance. Objective (performance, physiological, biochemical) and subjective measures are all options for athlete monitoring.

Concepts: Objective pronoun


PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine functional and subjective results of patients who received arthroscopic debridement for their TFCC Palmer 1B lesions and to compare their results with those of arthroscopic suture repair. METHODS: Between March 2007 and August 2011, 36 patients were diagnosed with Palmer type 1B tears and underwent arthroscopic debridement. 31 patients (15 males and 16 females) were followed up for an average of 26.7 months (±17.4 months) postoperatively. Their average age was 36.7 years (±12.7 years). Follow-up included the determination of range of motion (ROM), grip strength, pain, and wrist scores (modified Mayo wrist score (MMWS), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH score)). RESULTS: Postoperative ROM averaged 99.2 % for the extension/flexion arc, 95.5 % for the radial/ulnar deviation arc, and 99.4 % for the pronation/supination arc of motion when compared with the contralateral wrist. The MMWS was rated excellent in 48 % of patients, good in 39 %, fair in 13 %, and poor in 0 %. The average DASH score was 17.02 (±14.92). There was a significant reduction in pain. The grip strength was 96.7 % (±15.8), pulp-to-pulp pinch 101.9 % (±17.4), and the ulnar variance -0.12 ± 1.69 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Arthroscopic debridement of Palmer type 1B lesions in stable DRUJ yields satisfactory to excellent results. Our study showed similar results compared with the studies of arthroscopic suture repair with shorter postoperative care and fewer complications.

Concepts: Forearm, Wrist, Arthroscopy, Objective pronoun, Grip strength, Distal radioulnar articulation, Triangular fibrocartilage


The longevity of a brow lift, its morphology, and its contribution to overall facial aesthetics have not been addressed in previous studies using both objective measurements and validated subjective aesthetic scoring systems.

Concepts: Objective pronoun, Aesthetics, Value theory, Eyebrow



Septoplasty is a frequently performed operation by otolaryngologists to relieve nasal obstruction complaints. When objective measurements tools are not available, preoperative decision-making is based on careful clinical examination. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between type and severity of septal deviation and patient-reported nasal obstruction.

Concepts: Degree of a polynomial, Objective pronoun, Otolaryngology


No objective assessment of delayed gastric emptying is carried out in patients undergoing Whipple’s procedure. All definitions and criteria along with evaluation of incidence of delayed gastric emptying are based on subjective assessment of the patient with clinical overview, so this study was carried out for an objective and accurate assessment of delayed gastric emptying in post Whipple’s patients using gastric scintigraphy.

Concepts: Patient, Evaluation, Evaluation methods, Assessment, Patience, Objective pronoun, Pancreaticoduodenectomy


The manuscript presents a review of recently published studies reporting objective and subjective outcomes and preoperative considerations of asymmetrical multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs).

Concepts: Intraocular lens, Objective pronoun, Corrective lenses, Asymmetric warfare


It remains unclear how the brain represents external objective sensory events alongside our internal subjective impressions of them-affect. Representational mapping of population activity evoked by complex scenes and basic tastes in humans revealed a neural code supporting a continuous axis of pleasant-to-unpleasant valence. This valence code was distinct from low-level physical and high-level object properties. Although ventral temporal and anterior insular cortices supported valence codes specific to vision and taste, both the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices (OFC) maintained a valence code independent of sensory origin. Furthermore, only the OFC code could classify experienced affect across participants. The entire valence spectrum was represented as a collective pattern in regional neural activity as sensory-specific and abstract codes, whereby the subjective quality of affect can be objectively quantified across stimuli, modalities and people.

Concepts: Brain, Neuroscience, Human brain, Cerebral cortex, Taste, Code, Object, Objective pronoun


The common assumption that population sleep duration has declined in the past few decades has not been supported by recent reviews, which have been limited to self-reported data. The aim of this review was to assess whether there has been a reduction in objectively recorded sleep duration over the last 50+ years. The literature was searched for studies published from 1960 to 2013, which assessed objective sleep duration (total sleep time (TST)) in healthy normal-sleeping adults. The search found 168 studies that met inclusion criteria, with 257 data points representing 6052 individuals ages 18-88 y. Data were assessed by comparing the regression lines of age vs. TST in studies conducted between 1960 and 1989 vs. 1990-2013. Weighted regression analyses assessed the association of year of study with age-adjusted TST across all data points. Regression analyses also assessed the association of year of study with TST separately for 10-y age categories (e.g., ages 18-27 y), and separately for polysomnographic and actigraphic data, and for studies involving a fixed sleep schedule and participants' customary sleep schedules. Analyses revealed no significant association of sleep duration with study year. The results are consistent with recent reviews of subjective data, which have challenged the notion of a modern epidemic of insufficient sleep.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Linear regression, Sleep, Assessment, The Association, Cultural studies, Objective pronoun, Polyphasic sleep


The GA(2)LEN chamber has been developed as a novel mobile allergen exposure chamber (AEC) allowing standardized multicenter trials in allergy. Hitherto, subjective nasal symptom scores have been the most often used outcome parameter, but in standardized modern trials objective parameters are preferred. Despite its practicability, the objective parameter peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) has been rarely used for allergy trials in the setting of allergen exposure chambers. This study aims to evaluate PNIF as an outcome parameter for provocation studies in AECs.

Concepts: Asthma, Cultural studies, Parameter, Objective pronoun, Chambers of parliament, Chamber music