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Concept: Northwest Airlines


Flight attendants at Alaska Airlines reported health symptoms after the introduction of new uniforms in 2011. The airline replaced the uniforms in 2014 without acknowledging harm. To understand possible uniform-related health effects, we analyzed self-reported health symptoms in crew who participated in the Harvard Flight Attendant Health Study between 2007 and 2015, the period before, during, and after the introduction of new uniforms.

Concepts: Northwest Airlines, Aircraft, Airline, Delta Air Lines, Pan American World Airways, Flight attendant, Eastern Air Lines


In recent years, the U.S. commercial airline industry has achieved unprecedented levels of safety, with the statistical risk associated with U.S. commercial aviation falling to 0.003 fatalities per 100 million passengers. But decades of research on organizational learning show that success often breeds complacency and failure inspires improvement. With accidents as rare events, can the airline industry continue safety advancements? This question is complicated by the complex system in which the industry operates where chance combinations of multiple factors contribute to what are largely probabilistic (rather than deterministic) outcomes. Thus, some apparent successes are realized because of good fortune rather than good processes, and this research intends to bring attention to these events, the near-misses. The processes that create these near-misses could pose a threat if multiple contributing factors combine in adverse ways without the intervention of good fortune. Yet, near-misses (if recognized as such) can, theoretically, offer a mechanism for continuing safety improvements, above and beyond learning gleaned from observable failure. We test whether or not this learning is apparent in the airline industry. Using data from 1990 to 2007, fixed effects Poisson regressions show that airlines learn from accidents (their own and others), and from one category of near-misses-those where the possible dangers are salient. Unfortunately, airlines do not improve following near-miss incidents when the focal event has no clear warnings of significant danger. Therefore, while airlines need to and can learn from certain near-misses, we conclude with recommendations for improving airline learning from all near-misses.

Concepts: Airport, Northwest Airlines, Aircraft, Airline, Avianca, Airlines, Civil aviation, Southwest Airlines


We conducted this study to characterize in-flight pediatric fatalities onboard commercial airline flights worldwide and identify patterns that would have been unnoticed through single case analysis of these relative rare events.

Concepts: Northwest Airlines, Pattern matching, Aircraft, Airline, Avianca, Airlines, Southwest Airlines, Regional airline


Geographic heterogeneity of human papillomavirus (HPV) involvement in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has been observed over the last few years. This trend has not been evaluated in the Philippines. Hence, this study aims to provide for the first time a data on the prevalence of HPV in HNSCC in the northwestern region of the Philippines.

Concepts: Cancer, Human papillomavirus, Lung cancer, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Philippines, Head and neck cancer, Northwest Airlines


More than 3 billion passengers are transported every year on commercial airline flights worldwide, many of whom are children. The incidence of in-flight medical events (IFMEs) affecting children is largely unknown. This study seeks to characterize pediatric IFMEs, with particular focus on in-flight injuries (IFIs).

Concepts: Northwest Airlines, Aircraft, Airline, Avianca, Airlines, Southwest Airlines


A 3-year research program was undertaken to assess potential environmental disturbance caused by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill to the soft-bottom macrobenthic communities within Mexican waters of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Community properties and temporal/spatial variability were analyzed besides toxicant parameters such as hydrocarbons and trace-metals. Overall infaunal density increased, taxa proportion changed, and small-size opportunistic organisms prevailed throughout the study. Annual abundance-biomass comparison (ABC) curves revealed progressive stress scenarios from moderate to severe. Concentrations of vanadium, nickel, cobalt, PAHs and AHs increased gradually over time. However, low correlations between benthic density and biogeochemical variables were determined. Initially, sedimentary properties were the main drivers of benthic community structure; subsequently, nickel, vanadium and PAHs, indicative of anthropogenic effect, were highlighted. Interannual variability in the macroinfauna was attributed to the synergy of several environmental factors. Undoubtedly, compounds derived from fossil fuels had a significant disturbance role, but their source remains uncertain.

Concepts: Yucatán Peninsula, Water, Petroleum, Mexico, Gulf of Mexico, Cuba, Northwest Airlines, Rio Grande


We present a risk analysis undertaken to mitigate problems in relation to the unintended deployment of slides under normal operations within a commercial airline. This type of incident entails relevant costs for the airline industry. After assessing the likelihood and severity of its consequences, we conclude that such risks need to be managed. We then evaluate the effectiveness of various countermeasures, describing and justifying the chosen ones. We also discuss several issues faced when implementing and communicating the proposed measures, thus fully illustrating the risk analysis process.

Concepts: Northwest Airlines, Hedge, Airline, Avianca, Airlines, Southwest Airlines


Medical emergencies often occur on commercial airline flights, but valid data on their causes and consequences are rare. Therefore, it is unclear what emergency medical equipment is necessary. Although a minimum standard for medical equipment is defined in regulations, additional material is not standardized and may vary significantly between different airlines.

Concepts: Emergency medical services, Northwest Airlines, Aircraft, Airline, Avianca, Airlines, Douglas DC-3, Southwest Airlines


A total of 2,643 samples from patients with gastroenteritis in Galicia (NW Spain) were tested for the presence of Norovirus (NoV). NoV genogroup GI was detected in 416 (15.7%) samples, while NoV genogroup GII was detected in 278 (10.5%) samples. Mixed infections of NoV GI and GII were observed in 53 (2%) samples. Total prevalence of NoV in the analyzed samples was 28.3%. Besides NoV diagnosis assay, all the specimens were also submitted to routine clinical bacteriology tests. Cryptosporidium spp. as well as adenovirus (AdV) and rotavirus (RV) were determined on some samples after specific request by hospital units. The results obtained allowed to determine the disease etiology in 14.4% of the patients. Taking into account all the microorganisms studied, the etiological agent was determined for 39.5% of the cases. The results indicated that NoVs are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in all age-groups in Northwestern Spain, and that the lack of routine NoV diagnosis contributes to the underestimation of the importance of this virus, not only in outbreaks, but also in sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis. J. Med. Virol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Virus, Rotavirus, Diarrhea, Gastroenteritis, Oral rehydration therapy, Norovirus, Etiology, Northwest Airlines


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate which of the following factors affect the uptake of the combined test (CT) in the Netherlands: women’s socio-demographic background, attitude towards Down syndrome, attitude towards termination of pregnancy, counseling process, reimbursement policy, and knowledge on the aim of the CT. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey in the Northwest (NW) and the Northeast (NE) region of the Netherlands. RESULTS: Analyses were based on 820 questionnaires (73% response rate). Women from the NW region opted more often for the CT than women from the NE region (52.1% and 16.5%, respectively, p < 0.001). Women of 36 years and older opted more often for the CT than younger women (59.4% and 28.2%, respectively, p < 0.001). Women's socio-demographic background and their attitude towards Down syndrome and termination of pregnancy (TOP) had contributed independently on CT choice. CONCLUSION: The uptake of the CT in this study is low. The main reason for the low uptake is the relatively positive attitude towards Down syndrome and a negative attitude towards TOP. Moreover, the perception of maternal age as strong predictor of Down syndrome risk and the inequality of access to care, due to the financial threshold for younger women, are likely to affect participation in screening. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Cross-sectional study, Following, England, John Wiley & Sons, Netherlands, Prostitution in the Netherlands, The UpTake, Northwest Airlines