SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Nontotient

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A preliminary field evaluation of a second-generation handheld oral fluid testing device, the Alere DDS2 Mobile Test System (DDS2), is described. As part of a larger study, drivers were randomly stopped at various locations across California (in 2012) and asked to submit voluntarily to a questionnaire regarding their drug and alcohol use, a breath alcohol test and collection of oral fluid with the Quantisal device. The Quantisal-collected oral fluid samples were sent for laboratory-based analyses. At one location, 50 drivers were asked to submit an additional oral fluid sample using the DDS2 collection device; these samples were analyzed by using the DDS2 mobile test system. Thirty-eight donors (76%) provided specimens that were successfully run on the mobile system; in 12 cases (24%), the device failed to provide a valid result. Thirty-two of the 38 collected samples were negative for all drugs; five were positive for tetrahydrocannabinol and one was positive for methamphetamine using the mobile device. These results corresponded exactly with the laboratory-based results from the Quantisal oral fluid collection.

Concepts: Sample, Drug, Drug addiction, Mobile device, Mobile River, Nontotient, Mobile Web

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between femoral neck version and pre- and intraoperative findings in hips with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The authors retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data on 188 patients (204 hips) who underwent hip arthroscopy for FAI and labral pathology. Femoral version was measured on magnetic resonance imaging by a fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist. The study group comprised 100 men and 88 women with a mean age of 35 years (range, 18 to 62 years). Mean femoral version was 9° (range, -10° to 27°). No relationship was found between femoral version and patient demographics (ie, age, sex, weight, height, and body mass index). A significant correlation was found between version and degrees of external rotation (r=-0.208; P=.027) and internal rotation (r=0.231; P=.002) on physical examination. Patients with femoral version less than 5° had significantly increased external rotation (P=.027). Intraoperative findings demonstrated that femoral version greater than 15° was related to larger labral tears that averaged approximately 38 mm in size, whereas patients with anteversion less than 5° had tear sizes measuring 30 mm and patients with angles between 5° and 15° had tear sizes averaging 34 mm (P=.008). Hips with femoral version greater than 15° were 2.2 times more likely (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 4.1) to have labral tears that extended beyond the 3 o'clock position, denoting more anterior tears. Hips in which a psoas release was performed had higher version angles (8° vs 11°; P=.023).

Concepts: Measurement, Medical imaging, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Body mass index, Radiology, Sartorius muscle, Nontotient

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Background:The detection of V600E BRAF mutation in melanoma is fundamental since here BRAF inhibitors represent an effective treatment. Non-V600E BRAF mutations that may also respond are not detected by certain screening methods. Thus, knowledge about detection of these mutations is needed.Methods:A total of 276 tumour samples from 174 melanoma patients were investigated for BRAF mutations by pyrosequencing. Rare mutations were confirmed by capillary sequencing and compared with findings from COBAS test and immunohistochemistry using a novel BRAF antibody. Melanoma type, localisation, and survival were summarised.Results:BRAF mutations were found in 43% of patients (124 tumours in 75 patients). Among those, 14 patients (18.7%) exhibited rare mutations. The V600EK601del and V600DK601del mutations have never been described before in melanoma. Furthermore, V600K, V600E2, and V600D, V600G, V600R, and L597S mutations were detected. Mutations were not detected by COBAS test in 7 out of these 14 patients and immunohistochemistry only reliably detected patients with the V600E2 and V600EK601del mutation.Conclusion:Accurate diagnosis of rare BRAF mutations is crucial. We show that pyrosequencing is accurate, highly sensitive, reliable, and time saving to detect rare BRAF mutations. Missing these rare variant mutations would exclude a subset of patients from available effective BRAF-targeting therapy.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 11 April 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.143 www.bjcancer.com.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Cancer, Mutation, Oncology, Brain tumor, Tumor, Neoplasm, Nontotient

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Studies indicate a positive association between walnut intake and improvements in plasma lipids. We evaluated the effect of an isocaloric replacement of macronutrients with walnuts and the time point of consumption on plasma lipids. We included 194 healthy subjects (134 females, age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 25.1 ± 4.0 kg/m²) in a randomized, controlled, prospective, cross-over study. Following a nut-free run-in period, subjects were randomized to two diet phases (8 weeks each). Ninety-six subjects first followed a walnut-enriched diet (43 g walnuts/day) and then switched to a nut-free diet. Ninety-eight subjects followed the diets in reverse order. Subjects were also randomized to either reduce carbohydrates (n = 62), fat (n = 65), or both (n = 67) during the walnut diet, and instructed to consume walnuts either as a meal or as a snack. The walnut diet resulted in a significant reduction in fasting cholesterol (walnut vs.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Nutrition, Randomized controlled trial, Fat, Vitamin, Nitrogen, Nut, Nontotient

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The size of the registered nurse (RN) workforce has surpassed forecasts from a decade ago, growing to 2.7 million in 2012 instead of peaking at 2.2 million. Much of the difference is the result of a surge in new nursing graduates. However, the size of the RN workforce is particularly sensitive to changes in retirement age, given the large number of baby-boomer RNs now in the workforce. We found that in the period 1969-90, for a given number of RNs working at age fifty, 47 percent were still working at age sixty-two and 9 percent were working at age 69. In contrast, in the period 1991-2012 the proportions were 74 percent at age 62 and 24 percent at age 69. This trend, which largely predates the recent recession, extended nursing careers by 2.5 years after age fifty and increased the 2012 RN workforce by 136,000 people. Because many RNs tend to shift out of hospital settings as they age, employers seeking RNs for nonhospital roles may welcome (and seek to capitalize on) the growing numbers of experienced RNs potentially able to fill these positions.

Concepts: Nursing, Nurse, Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Registered nurse, Healthcare occupations, Licensed practical nurse, Nursing board certification, Nontotient

3

Background Hall technique preformed metal crowns (HTPMCs) have been increasing in use recently, but little is currently known about their use by specialists.Aim To investigate the views and usage of HTPMCs by UK specialist paediatric dentists.Design This was a prospective questionnaire-based study, distributed online to all specialists on the British Society of Paediatric Dentistry email list between July and September 2014.Results Ninety-four questionnaires were completed. The majority of respondents, 65% (61) worked in teaching hospitals, followed by community dental services, 37% (35). Ninety-six percent (89) reported that they used HTPMCs in their practice. Fifty-eight percent (54) used HTPMCs as a treatment option for restoring symptomless carious primary molars, and 15% (14) only when unable to provide conventional restoration. Twenty-three percent (21) used HTPMCs as the treatment of choice. Only 4% (4) of respondents never used them. Sixty percent (53) had been using HTPMCs for over five years. Seventy-six percent (68) would consider placing HTPMCs under inhalation sedation, and 26% (23) under general anaesthesia. Over 90% (85) believed that HTPMCs are suitable for undergraduate teaching, general practice, postgraduate training and specialist practice.Conclusion HTPMCs are widely used among specialist paediatric dentists in the UK.

Concepts: Physician, United Kingdom, Anesthesia, Dental implant, Dentistry, Prime number, Integers, Nontotient

1

Following up on the encouraging results of residue-residue contact prediction in the CASP11 experiment, we present the analysis of predictions submitted for CASP12. The submissions include predictions of thirty-four groups for thirty-eight domains classified as free modelling targets which are not accessible to homology-based modelling due to a lack of structural templates. CASP11 saw a rise of coevolution-based methods outperforming other approaches. The improvement of these methods coupled to machine learning and sequence database growth are most likely the main driver for a significant improvement in average precision from 27% in CASP11 to 47% in CASP12. In more than half of the targets, especially those with many homologous sequences accessible, precisions above 90% were achieved with the best predictors reaching a precision of 100% in some cases. We furthermore tested the impact of using these contacts as restraints in ab initio modelling of fourteen single-domain free modelling targets using Rosetta. Adding contacts to the Rosetta calculations resulted in improvements of up to 26% in GDT_TS within the top 5 structures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Scientific method, Bioinformatics, Prediction, Future, Sequence, All rights reserved, Copyright, Nontotient

1

Despite significant improvements in the signs and symptoms of myelofibrosis (MF), and possible prolongation of patients' survival, some have disease that is refractory to ruxolitinib and many lose their response over time. Furthermore, patients with ≥3 mutations are less likely to respond to ruxolitinib. Here we describe outcomes after ruxolitinib discontinuation in MF patients enrolled in a phase ½ study at our center. After a median follow-up of 79 months, 86 patients had discontinued ruxolitinib (30 of whom died while on therapy). The median follow-up after ruxolitinib discontinuation for the remaining 56 patients was 32 months, with median survival after discontinuation of 14 months. Platelets <260x10(9)/L at the start of therapy or <100x10(9)/L at the time of discontinuation were associated with shorter survival after discontinuation. Of 62 patients with molecular data at baseline and follow-up, 22 (35%) acquired a new mutation while receiving ruxolitinib (14 [61%] in ASXL1). Patients showing clonal evolution had significantly shorter survival after discontinuation (6 vs 16 months). Transfusion dependency was the only clinical variable associated with clonal evolution. These findings underscore the need for novel therapies and suggest that clonal evolution or decreasing platelet counts while on ruxolitinib therapy may be markers of poor prognosis.

Concepts: Medicine, Mutation, Evolution, Therapy, Platelet, Thrombocytopenia, TheStart, Nontotient

1

People can hear and pay attention to familiar terms such as their own name better than general terms, referred to as the cocktail party effect. We performed a prospective, randomised, double-blind trial to investigate whether calling the patient’s name compared with a general term facilitated a patient’s response and recovery from general anaesthesia. We enrolled women having breast cancer surgery with general anaesthesia using propofol and remifentanil. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups depending on whether the patient’s name or a general term was called, followed by the verbal command - ‘open your eyes!’ - during emergence from anaesthesia; this pre-recorded sentence was played to the patient using headphones. Fifty patients were allocated to the name group and 51 to the control group. Our primary outcome was the time from discontinuation of anaesthesia until eye opening. The mean (SD) time was 337 (154) s in the name group and 404 (170) s in the control group (p = 0.041). The time to i-gel(®) removal was 385 (152) vs. 454 (173) s (p = 0.036), the time until achieving a bispectral index of 60 was 174 (133) vs. 205 (160) s (p = 0.3), and the length of stay in the postanaesthesia care unit was 43.8 (3.4) vs. 47.3 (7.1) min (p = 0.005), respectively. In conclusion, using the patient’s name may be an easy and effective method to facilitate recovery from general anaesthesia.

Concepts: Scientific method, Patient, Attention, Surgery, Patience, Anesthesia, Nontotient, Cocktail party effect

1

Much of the data used to measure conflict is extracted from news reports. This is typically accomplished using either expert coders to quantify the relevant information or machine coders to automatically extract data from documents. Although expert coding is costly, it produces quality data. Machine coding is fast and inexpensive, but the data are noisy. To diminish the severity of this tradeoff, we introduce a method for analyzing news documents that uses crowdsourcing, supplemented with computational approaches. The new method is tested on documents about Militarized Interstate Disputes, and its accuracy ranges between about 68 and 76 percent. This is shown to be a considerable improvement over automated coding, and to cost less and be much faster than expert coding.

Concepts: Critical thinking, Measurement, Computer, Nontotient