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Concept: Nominative case


Children and adults follow cues such as case marking and word order in their assignment of semantic roles in simple transitives (e.g., the dog chased the cat). It has been suggested that the same cues are used for the interpretation of complex sentences, such as transitive relative clauses (RCs) (e.g., that’s the dog that chased the cat) (Bates, Devescovi, & D'Amico, 1999). We used a pointing paradigm to test German-speaking 3-, 4-, and 6-year-old children’s sensitivity to case marking and word order in their interpretation of simple transitives and transitive RCs. In Experiment 1, case marking was ambiguous. The only cue available was word order. In Experiment 2, case was marked on lexical NPs or demonstrative pronouns. In Experiment 3, case was marked on lexical NPs or personal pronouns. Whereas the younger children mainly followed word order, the older children were more likely to base their interpretations on the more reliable case-marking cue. In most cases, children from both age groups were more likely to use these cues in their interpretation of simple transitives than in their interpretation of transitive RCs. Finally, children paid more attention to nominative case when it was marked on first-person personal pronouns than when it was marked on third-person lexical NPs or demonstrative pronouns, such as der Löwe ‘the-NOM lion’ or der ‘he-NOM.’ They were able to successfully integrate this case-marking cue in their sentence processing even when it appeared late in the sentence. We discuss four potential reasons for these differences across development, constructions, and lexical items. (1) Older children are relatively more sensitive to cue reliability. (2) Word order is more reliable in simple transitives than in transitive RCs. (3) The processing of case marking might initially be item-specific. (4) The processing of case marking might depend on its saliency and position in the sentence.

Concepts: Subject, English language, German language, Grammatical case, Nominative case, Accusative case, Dative case, Personal pronoun


This study employed a paired priming paradigm to ask whether input features influence a child’s propensity to use non-nominative versus nominative case in subject position, and to use non-nominative forms even when verbs are marked for agreement. Thirty English-speaking children (ages 2;6 to 3;7) heard sentences with pronouns that had non-contrasting case forms (e.g. Dad hugs it and it hugs Tigger) and it was hypothesized that these forms would lead to more errors (e.g. Him hugs Barney) in an elicited phrase more often than if the children heard contrasting case forms (e.g. Dad hugs us and we hug the doggie). Tense/agreement features were also examined in children’s elicited productions. The findings were consistent with predictions, and supported the input ambiguity hypothesis of Pelham (2011). Implications for current accounts of the optional infinitive stage are discussed.

Concepts: Scientific method, Epistemology, Subject, English language, Inflection, Nominative case, Accusative case, Dative case


According to the current version of Rule 12c of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, one of the ways in which a specific epithet can be treated is as an adjective that must agree in gender with the generic name. I propose emending this part of Rule 12c to specify that such adjectives must be in the singular form in the nominative case.

Concepts: Spanish language, Noun, Latin, Inflection, Nominative case, Accusative case, Dative case, Icelandic language


This paper presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention (the Social Communication Intervention Programme or SCIP) as delivered to a child who has a Social Communication Disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing, pragmatic and social understanding therapies within a program of individualized therapy activities and in close liaison with families.

Concepts: Sociology, Therapy, Subject, Case study, Programming language, Semiotics, Nominative case, Dative case


According to the current version of Rule 10a of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, the name of a genus or subgenus is a substantive, or an adjective used as a substantive, in the singular number. I propose modifying Rule 10a to specify that such names must be in the nominative case.

Concepts: Noun, Declension, Inflection, Sanskrit, Nominative case, Icelandic language


Two experiments used eye-tracking during reading to investigate the role of the consistency of the relative markedness alignment of noun phrases (NPs) in the processing of complex sentences in Korean. To do so, the animacy of the first NP was varied in both experiments to manipulate the relative markedness of NPs. In addition, case markings of the second NP (nominative vs. accusative) were manipulated in the first experiment and the markings of the first NP (nominative vs. topic) were manipulated in the second experiment. Results revealed that the animacy manipulation and the nominative-topicality manipulation showed measurable influence on the participants' reading of the complex sentences. Also, the effect of the prominence misalignment caused by animacy seems to have a stronger effect on reading than the effect caused by the nominative-topicality manipulation. The experiments suggested that on-line processing of Korean complex sentences are affected by the consistency of the relative markedness alignment of NPs.

Concepts: Causality, Object, Noun, Pronoun, Grammatical case, Nominative case, Accusative case, Noun phrase


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to identify movement impairments and plan effective treatments using an evidence-based algorithm. A single subject case study was completed to demonstrate the application of the Neurologic Upper Extremity Recovery Algorithm (NUERA), which integrates the analysis of patient alignment, along with movement of the trunk, ribcage and scapula. The Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) was used for standardized assessment and to assist in analyzing the patient’s movement along with the nonstandardized clinicians assessment of movement. Using the NUERA, the patient’s upper extremity control improved as demonstrated by a 78% improvement in the ARAT score from a 27 at initial assessment to 48 (57 possible) following 2 months of treatment, along with the achievement of the patient’s goals. Use of the NUERA for the assessment and treatment of the upper extremity poststroke has promising utility.

Concepts: Scientific method, Hospital, Subject, Object, Upper limb, Test, Nominative case, Dative case


ABSTRACT Children with Rett Syndrome (RS) have neuromotor impairments that impact their mobility. Poor hand function among children with RS limits the selection of an assistive device for ambulation. Purpose: The purpose of this case report is to describe the process of selecting an assistive device for a child with RS to promote ambulation. Method: This single subject case reports on a 5-year-old girl with RS at a suburban mid-western early childhood special education setting. Results: The child in this case was able to walk the farthest distances with a metal toy shopping cart and then with an anterior facing four-wheeled walker. Conclusion: The outcome suggests that physical therapists and health professionals caring for young children with RS consider using a metal toy shopping cart to establish and practice ambulation prior to selection of a longer term, adjustable anterior facing walker like the one in this case report.

Concepts: Subject, Child, Childhood, Walking, The Child, Case report, Nominative case, Dative case


This study investigates the on-line processing of scrambled sentences in Japanese by preschool children and adults using a combination of self-paced listening and speeded picture selection tasks. The effects of a filler-gap dependency, reversibility, and case markers were examined. The results show that both children and adults had difficulty in comprehending scrambled sentences when they were provided as reversible sentences. The reversibility effect was significant for children, whereas the interaction of reversibility and a filler-gap dependency was significant for adults. However, this does not indicate that children’s parsing is fundamentally different from that of adults. For those children who processed the nominative and accusative case markers equally fast, the reactivation of the dislocated constituent was observed in the gap position. These results suggest that children’s processing is basically the same as adults' in that their sentence processing is incremental and they parse a gap to form a filler-gap dependency.

Concepts: Subject, Object, Grammatical case, Nominative case, Accusative case, Dative case


ABSTRACT Background: Challenging behaviors such as aggression, screaming, and apathy are often encountered when caring for people with dementia in nursing homes. In this context, a case conference is often recommended for healthcare professionals as an effective instrument to improve the quality of care. However, the subject case conference has not had great consideration in scientific literature. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of case conferences on people with dementia and challenging behavior and the staff in nursing homes. Methods: A search of intervention studies in nursing homes in the German or English language was performed in the following databases: Medline, Cinahl, PsycINFO, Cochrane library, Embase, and Google Scholar. The selection and the methodological quality of the studies were assessed independently by two authors. The results were summarized and compared based on categories such as study quality or outcomes. Results: Seven of 432 studies were included in the review. A total of four of seven studies showed a reduction in the challenging behavior of people with dementia, and five showed an influence on the competence, attitudes, and job satisfaction of the staff. However, due to the middle-range quality of several studies, the methodological heterogeneity and differences in the interventions, the results must be interpreted with caution. Conclusions: In summary, little evidence exists for the positive effects of case conferences in the care of people with dementia. This review highlights the need for methodologically well-designed intervention studies to provide conclusive evidence of the effects of case conferences.

Concepts: Health care, Psychology, Evidence-based medicine, Cochrane Library, Subject, MEDLINE, Bibliographic databases, Nominative case