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Concept: Nobel Biocare


As a result of major ablative surgery, head and neck oncology patients can be left with significant defects in the orofacial region. The resultant defect raises the need for advanced reconstruction techniques. The reconstruction in this region is aimed at restoring function and facial contour. The use of vascularised free flaps has revolutionised the reconstruction in the head and neck. Advances in reconstruction techniques have resulted in continuous improvement of oral rehabilitation. For example, endosteal implants are being used to restore the masticatory function by the way of prosthetic replacement of the dentition. Implant rehabilitation usually leads to improved facial appearance, function, restoration of speech and mastication. Suitable dental implant placement’s site requires satisfactory width, height and quality of bone. Reconstruction of hard tissue defects therefore will need to be tailored to meet the needs for implant placement.The aim of this feasibility study was to assess the compatibility of five standard commercially available dental implant systems (Biomet 3i, Nobel Biocare, Astra tech, Straumann and Ankylos) for placement into vascularised fibula graft during the reconstruction of oromandibular region.Radiographs (2D) of the lower extremities from 142 patients in the archives of the Department of Radiology in University College London Hospitals (UCLH) were analysed in this study. These radiographs were from 61 females and 81 males. Additionally, 60 unsexed dry fibular bones, 30 right sided, acquired from the collection of the Department of Anatomy, University College London (UCL) were also measured to account for the 3D factor.In the right fibula (dry bone), 90% of the samples measured had a width of 13.1 mm. While in the left fibula (dry bone), 90% of the samples measured had a width of 13.3 mm. Fibulas measured on radiographs had a width of 14.3 mm in 90% of the samples. The length ranges of the dental implants used in this study were: 7-13 mm (Biomet 3i), 10-13 mm (Nobel biocare), 8-13 mm (Astra Tech), 8-12 mm (Straumann ) and 8-11 mm (Ankylos).This study reached a conclusion that the width of fibula is sufficient for placement of most frequently used dental implants for oral rehabilitation after mandibular reconstructive procedures.

Concepts: Implants, Dental implant, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Osseointegration, Free flap, Per-Ingvar Brånemark, Nobel Biocare, University College London


Background: Enhancing the connective tissue seal around dental implants may be an important factor in implant survival. Purpose: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of implant surface modification with either platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or enamel matrix derivative (EMD) on connective tissue attachment to titanium implants. Materials and Methods: Eighteen implants (Branemark® Mk III Groovy NP (3.3 mmØ × 10 mm, Nobel Biocare) were implanted subcutaneously into 12 rats. Six implants each were coated with either PDGF or EMD immediately prior to implantation and six implants were left uncoated. Implants were retrieved at 4 and 8 weeks and assessed histologically to compare the soft tissue adaptation to the implant surfaces. Results: Ingrowth by soft connective tissue into the threads of all implants was noted at 4 and 8 weeks. Coating with growth factors did not alter the orientation of fibroblasts and collagen fibers. The depth of connective tissue penetration into the implant grooves was significantly greater for the implants coated with PDGF at 4 weeks. The thickness of the connective tissue in growth was significantly less for the implants coated with PDGF at 8 weeks. Conclusion: Coating of the implant surface with rhPDGF-BB or EMD can increase the speed and quantity of soft tissue healing around the implant surface.

Concepts: Collagen, Angiogenesis, Growth factor, Tissues, Dental implant, Growth factors, Platelet-derived growth factor, Nobel Biocare


Background: Concerns have been raised that use of surface-modified implants may result in peri-implant infection and marked marginal bone loss over time. Purpose: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the survival rate, marginal bone, and soft tissue conditions at surface-modified titanium dental implants after 10 years of function. Material and Methods: Forty-six totally and partially edentulous patients were provided with 121 Brånemark oxidized implants (TiUnite™, Nobel Biocare AB, Gothenburg, Sweden). Twenty-four (20%) implants were immediate loaded and 97 (80%) were placed using a two-stage procedure. A total of 22 single, 23 partial, and 7 total restorations were delivered. Clinical and radiographic checkups were carried out after 3, 6, 12 months, and thereafter annually up to 10 years. At these occasions, oral hygiene was evaluated and peri-implant mucosa examined by probing. If needed, patients were enrolled in an individual program for hygiene controls and professional cleaning. Marginal bone loss was evaluated in intraoral radiographs taken at baseline and after 1, 5, and 10 years of function. Results: One (0.8%) implant failed after 8 years giving a Survival Rate (SR) of 99.2% after 10 years. A total of 11 sites (9.2%) showed bleeding on probing (BP) at the 10th annual checkup. The mean marginal bone loss was 0.7 ± 1.35 mm based on 106 readable pairs of radiographs from baseline and from the 10th annual examination. Twelve (11.3%) implants showed more than 2 mm bone loss, and five (4.7%) showed more than 3 mm of bone loss after 10 years. For the latter, all patients were smokers and had poor or acceptable oral hygiene. All five implants with >3 mm bone loss showed BP and two (1.9%) showed suppuration from the pocket. For the remaining seven implants with more than 2 mm bone loss, no correlation to smoking, oral hygiene, bleeding, or pus could be seen. Time/marginal bone level plots of the 12 implants with more than 2 mm bone loss after 10 years, showed minor changes from the first annual checkup except for the two infected implants. Conclusions: It is concluded that good long-term clinical outcomes can be obtained with oxidized titanium dental implants. Only 1.9% of examined implants showed significant marginal bone loss together with bleeding and suppuration after 10 years of function.

Concepts: Periodontology, Gingiva, Dental implant, Per-Ingvar Brånemark, Nobel Biocare


This study reports the case of a patient with a severely resorbed mandible who was treated without a bone graft, using short implants, internal rigid fixation, rhBMP-2 and β-tricalcium phosphate. A 76-year-old woman, with a severely resorbed mandible (less than 3mm), reported a history of nearly 25years of complete edentulism and consecutive treatment failures, with total bilateral exposed inferior alveolar nerves and complete bone resorption of the inferior border in some areas. The treatment of choice was the placement of a 2.0mm thick unilock bone plate (MatrixMandible, Synthes Maxillofacial, Paoli, PA, USA), to reinforce the mandible. Eight short implants with a regular platform (Nobel Biocare, Goteborg, Sweden) were placed: three on the external oblique line on both sides and two on the symphysis. In order to augment mandible height and coat the exposed thread of the anterior implants, rhBMP-2 (Infuse Bone, Meditronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (Cerasorb; Curasan, Kleinostheim, Germany) were used. Four 1.3mmL miniplates were placed to support the graft. 14months after surgery, the patient was satisfied and had excellent function without complications.

Concepts: Bone, Surgery, Bone resorption, Sweden, Dental implant, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Abdominal external oblique muscle, Nobel Biocare


Routine reconstruction of subtotal defects of the mandible and orthopedic rehabilitation supported by dental implants is achieved by means of detailed planning and lasts over a year. This article shows the outcomes of single-stage surgical treatment and immediate orthopedic rehabilitation performed with the help of preoperative virtual computer simulation. 3D investigation of pathological and donor sites, virtual simulation of tumor resection, positioning of the dental implants into fibula, virtual flap bending and transfer, virtual bending of fixing reconstruction plates, and fabrication of navigation templates and bridge prosthesis supported by dental implants were done preoperatively. The surgery included tumor resection, insertion of dental implants into fibula, elevation of fibula osteocutaneous free flap, rigid fixation within recipient site, and immediate loading by bridge orthopedic device. On 10-month follow-up, functional and esthetic results were asses as reasonable. Radiography showed dental implants to be integrated and positioned appropriately. We found that successful rehabilitation of the patients with extensive defects of the jaws could be achieved by ablative tumor resection, dental implants insertion prior to flap elevation guided by navigation templates, further osteotomy, modeling of the flap based on navigation template, flap transfer, and rigid fixation within recipient site by prebended plates, with application of prefabricated prosthesis.

Concepts: Implants, Prosthetics, Computer simulation, Dental implant, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, CAD/CAM Dentistry, Nobel Biocare


Data sourcesSix implant dentistry journals with impact factors (2014) assigned by Journal Citation Reports (Clinical Oral Implants Research, Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, European Journal of Oral Implants, The International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, Journal of Oral Implantology, and Implant Dentistry) and the Medline database.Study selectionTwo reviewers independently selected guidelines published between May 2009 and February 2016.Data evaluationFollowing training four reviewers independently applied the Agree II tool ( to the selected guidelines with disagreements being resolved by discussion. Scores for the six domains of the AGREE II tool were presented as median percentages of the maximum possible with their respective interquartile ranges (IQR). Domain scores were divided into consensus guidelines, and consensus guidelines with systematic reviews.ResultsTwenty-seven consensus guidelines were included, with 19 contributing to the comparisons between groups. Twenty-six guidelines were developed after meetings in Europe, with the European Association of Osseointergration developing the most guidelines (n=9). The number of authors for the guidelines varied from 2-27 (median, 9). For consensus guidelines only domain four scored highest. Guidelines with systematic review scored higher for all domains with the exception of domain five (Table 1).ConclusionsThere is room to improve the quality of consensus guidelines published in highly ranked implant dentistry journals. Clinicians' and researchers' development of consensus guidelines to improve clinical treatment with dental implants is laudable. However, as for primary and secondary research, these guidelines should adhere to high and transparent standards. The AGREE II instrument can be used as a reference for the development of high-quality guidelines to provide unbiased and adequate clinical recommendations to clinicians working with dental implants.

Concepts: Implants, Dental implant, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Osseointegration, CAD/CAM Dentistry, Nobel Biocare


Long-term results of dental implant treatment in fibula free and deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) free flaps are scarce. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare peri-implant bone resorption of vascularized bone flaps treated with dental implants. A total of 28 patients, 14 fibula and 14 DCIA flaps, respectively, underwent reconstruction of the lower and upper jaw by the use of vascularized bone flaps and were treated with dental implants. Peri-implant bone resorption was measured using digital panographs up to 3 years. Radiographic pictures were taken immediately after implant surgery before prosthetic rehabilitation (T0), the second after 6-12 months (T1), the third after 13-24 months (T2), and the fourth after 25-36 months (T3). Over a period of 3 years, implant resorption changed significantly over time (pD1 = 0.0113, pD2 = 0.0232, pD3 = 0.0143). However, a significant difference in overall resorption between implants with fibula flaps and DCIA could not be detected for the patient average or within the implant-level analysis. Flaps presented minimal resorption from beneath (mean resorption DCIA 0.65, fibula = 0.26). Strong peri-implant bone resorption changed significantly over time. However, no significant difference was observed between fibula and DCIA flaps.

Concepts: Implants, Prosthetics, Dental implant, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Osseointegration, CAD/CAM Dentistry, Nobel Biocare


Iliac bone grafts are used to augment alveolar ridges followed by subsequent dental implants in completely edentulous patients. In Albania the information about these issues is scarce.

Concepts: Implants, Dental implant, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Artificial bone, CAD/CAM Dentistry, Edentulism, Nobel Biocare


Commercial titanium-based dental implants are obtained applying various methods such as machining, acid etching, anodization, plasma spraying, grit blasting or combination techniques yielding materials with smooth or micro-roughened surfaces. Those techniques are used to optimize the surface properties and to maximize biocompatibility and bioactivity with bone tissue. Present review is focused on the material surfaces obtained by anodic spark deposition (ASD). From the early 1980s till present, the results of numerous studies have shown that anodically oxidized surfaces with different dopants express a positive effect on osteoblasts behavior in vitro and osseointegration in vivo. Those surfaces demonstrated a high biocompatibility and rapid osseointegration in clinical application. This paper provides an overview of the preparation of implant surfaces by employing ASD process. Moreover, reviewed are clinically used ASD implant surfaces (Ticer, TiUnite, Osstem, etc.). The electrolyte variations in ASD process and their influence on surface properties are given herein. Using different electrolytes, anode voltages and temperatures, the above fabrication process can yield various surface morphologies from smooth to rough, porous surfaces. Furthermore, ASD enables thickening of oxide layers and enrichment with different dopands from used electrolyte, which hinder release of potentially toxic titanium ions in surrounding tissue. Particularly exciting results were achieved by calcium and phosphorus doping of the oxide layer (Ticer, ZL Microdent; TiUnite, Nobel Biocare Holding AB) which significantly increased the osteocompatibility. Ticer, a dental implant with anodically oxidized surface and the first among similar materials employed in clinical practice, was found to promote fast osteoblast cell differentiation and mineralization processes. Moreover, Ticer accelerate the integration with the bone, increase the bone/implant contact and improve primary and secondary stability of the implants. Additionally, potential innovations in this field such as fabrication of nanotubes on the implant surfaces as well as novel approaches (e.g. coating with proteins, nanostructured topography; combining implant body and surface derived from titanium and zirconia) are elaborated in this review. Besides, biochemical aspects on implant surface cell/tissue interaction are summarized. From the clinical point of view implant surfaces fabricated by ASD technology possess fast and improved osseointegration, high healing rates and long term prognosis.

Concepts: Electrochemistry, Implants, Electrolyte, Dental implant, Titanium, Osseointegration, Per-Ingvar Brånemark, Nobel Biocare


An association between vitamin D deficiency and early dental implant failure is not properly verified, but its role in osteoimmunology is discussed. This article illustrates two case reports with vitamin D deficiency and early implant failure. Prior to implant placement, the first patient received crestal bone grafting with autologous material. Both patients received dental implants from different manufacturers in the molar region of the mandible. In the case of bone grafting in the first patient, all implants were placed in a two-stage procedure. All implants had to be removed within 15 days after implant placement. Vitamin D serum levels were measured: Both patients showed a vitamin D deficiency (serum vitamin D level <20 μg/l). After vitamin D supplementation, implant placement was successful in both patients. Prospective, randomized clinical trials must follow to affirm the relationship between vitamin D deficiency, osteoimmunology, and early implant failure.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Implants, Dental implant, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Osseointegration, CAD/CAM Dentistry, Nobel Biocare