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Concept: Newcastle upon Tyne

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The Editors of Microbial Cell Factories would like to thank all our Reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 11 (2012).

Concepts: Microbial fuel cell, Newcastle upon Tyne, Editors

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To describe the impact of Street Triage (ST) on the number and rate of Section 136 Mental Health Act (S136) detentions in one NHS Mental Health and Disability Trust (Northumberland, Tyne and Wear (NTW)).

Concepts: England, Newcastle upon Tyne, North East England, Tyne and Wear, Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, Northumberland, County Durham, North Tyneside

13

Academic journals increasingly request a full disclosure of financial conflict of interest (CoI). The Committee for Publication Ethics provides editors with guidance about the course of action in the case of suspected non-disclosure. No prior study has examined the extent to which journal articles on psychosocial interventions disclose CoI, and how journal editors process requests to examine suspected undisclosed CoI. Four internationally disseminated psychosocial interventions were examined. 136 articles related to an intervention, co-authored by intervention developers and published in health sciences journals were retrieved as requiring a CoI statement. Two editors refused consent to be included in the study. COI disclosures and editor responses were coded for 134 articles. Overall, 92/134 (71%) of all articles were found to have absent, incomplete or partly misleading CoI disclosures. Disclosure rates for the four programs varied significantly between 11% and 73%. Journal editors were contacted about 92 published articles with no CoI disclosure or a disclosure that was considered problematic. In 65/92 (71%) of all cases the editors published an ‘erratum’ or ‘corrigendum’. In 16 of these cases the journal had mishandled a submitted disclosure. The most frequent reason for non-publication of an erratum was that the journal had no disclosure policy at the time of the publication (16 cases). Consumers of research on psychosocial interventions published in peer-reviewed journals cannot currently assume that CoI disclosures are adequate and complete. More efforts are needed to achieve transparency.

Concepts: Academic publishing, Peer review, Scientific journal, Publishing, Academic journal, Newcastle upon Tyne, Editors, Academic journals

12

PLOS Medicine’s Chief Editor looks back at some highlights in the way the journal has sought to constructively disrupt medical publishing over its history. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

Concepts: Editing, Newcastle upon Tyne, Editors

11

The editors of Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal from Volume 11 (2014).

Concepts: Nutrition, Newcastle upon Tyne, Editors

3

BACKGROUND: Birthweight and gestational age are associated with socioeconomic deprivation, but the evidence in relation to temporal changes in these associations is sparse. We investigated changes in the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and birthweight and gestational age in Newcastle upon Tyne, North of England, during 1961-2000. METHODS: We used population-based data from hospital neonatal records on all singleton births to mothers resident in Newcastle (births with complete covariate information n = 113,182). We used linear regression to analyse the associations between neighbourhood SES and birthweight over the entire 40-year period and by decade, and logistic regression for associations with low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction between SES and decade of birth for birthweight (p = 0.028) and preterm birth (p < 0.001). Socioeconomic gradients were similar in each decade for birthweight outcomes, but for preterm birth, socioeconomic disparities were more evident in the later decades [for 1961-70, odds ratio (OR) was 1.1, 95% CI 0.9, 1.3, for the most deprived versus the least deprived quartile, while for 1991-2000, the corresponding OR was 1.5, 95% CI 1.3, 1.7]. In each decade, there was a significant decrease in birthweight adjusted for gestational age for the most deprived compared to the least deprived SES group [1961-1970:-113.4g (95% CI-133.0, -93.8); 1991-2000:-97.5g (95% CI-113.0, -82.0)], while there was a significant increase in birthweight in each SES group over time. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic inequalities did not narrow over the four decades for birthweight and widened for preterm birth. Mean birthweight adjusted for gestational age increased in all socioeconomic groups, suggesting an overall increase in fetal growth.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Cohort study, Pregnancy, Childbirth, Fetus, Obstetrics, Gestational age, Newcastle upon Tyne

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The editors of Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal from Volume 12 (2015).

Concepts: Nutrition, Newcastle upon Tyne, Editors

2

In the period between 1815 and 1818, Sir Humphry Davy read four papers to the Royal Society and published a monograph dealing with a safety lamp for coal miners, all of which record in detail the experimental work that he carried out, with his assistant Michael Faraday, so as to determine how to prevent catastrophic accidents in coal mines by the explosion of fire-damp (methane) in the presence of a naked flame. This article describes the key experiments that he performed at the Royal Institution and some of the subsequent trials made in the coal mines of the north of England. It begins, however, with an account of Davy’s prior achievements in science before he was approached for help by the clergymen and doctors in the Gateshead and Newcastle upon Tyne areas. There is little doubt that the Davy lamp, from the 1820s onwards, transformed the coal industry worldwide. It also profoundly influenced the science of combustion, and in the words of a pioneer in that field, W. A. Bone, FRS, ‘There is no better model of logical experimental procedure, accurate reasoning, philosophical outlook and fine literary expression.’ It is a remarkable fact that it took Davy essentially only two weeks from the time he was given samples of fire-damp to solve the problem and to devise his renowned miner’s safety lamp. A brief account is also given of the contemporaneous invention of a safety lamp by George Stephenson, and of some of Davy’s subsequent accomplishments. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

Concepts: Michael Faraday, Coal, Newcastle upon Tyne, Fellows of the Royal Society, Humphry Davy, Royal Institution, Safety lamp, George Stephenson

1

We previously reported on a series of side errors in cranial neurosurgery that occurred around the UK before the year 2006. That survey was prompted by a cluster of six cranial and spinal side errors that occurred in the neurosurgery department in Newcastle upon Tyne during the year 2006. The report was part of our investigation into the problem and how to solve it.

Concepts: Newcastle upon Tyne, Liverpool, North East England, River Tyne, Tyne and Wear, Gateshead, South Shields, North Shields

1

In 2013 NHS England commissioned the use of eculizumab for both new patients with aHUS and those undergoing transplantation. This national service is delivered locally but coordinated by an expert centre at the Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.

Concepts: National Health Service, Newcastle upon Tyne, North East England, Tyne and Wear, Gateshead, South Shields, Northumberland