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Concept: New Mexico

54

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most prevalent cancer among children and adolescents in the United States, representing 20% of all cancers diagnosed in persons aged <20 years, or >3,000 new cases each year (1). Past studies reported increasing trends of ALL overall and among Hispanics, but these represented ≤28% of the U.S. population and did not provide state-based estimates (1-3). To describe U.S. ALL incidence rates and trends among persons aged <20 years during 2001-2014, CDC analyzed rigorous data (based on established publication criteria) from the United States Cancer Statistics data set, which includes incidence data on approximately 15,000 new cases per year of all types of invasive cancer among children and adolescents aged <20 years (4). The data set represented 98% of the U.S. population during the study period. Overall incidence of pediatric ALL during 2001-2014 was 34.0 cases per 1 million persons and among all racial/ethnic groups was highest among Hispanics (42.9 per 1 million). Both overall and among Hispanics, pediatric ALL incidence increased during 2001-2008 and remained stable during 2008-2014. ALL incidence was higher in the West than in any other U.S. Census region. State-specific data indicated that the highest rates of pediatric ALL incidence were in California, New Mexico, and Vermont. These demographic and geographic ALL incidence data might better inform public health interventions targeting the following areas: exposures to recognized risk factors for leukemia; ALL treatment, including clinical trial enrollment; survivorship care planning; and studies designed to understand the factors affecting changes in pediatric cancer incidence.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, United States, Spanish language, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Mexico, Hispanic and Latino Americans, New Mexico

48

Cycles of demographic and organizational change are well documented in Neolithic societies, but the social and ecological processes underlying them are debated. Such periodicities are implicit in the “Pecos classification,” a chronology for the pre-Hispanic U.S. Southwest introduced in Science in 1927 which is still widely used. To understand these periodicities, we analyzed 29,311 archaeological tree-ring dates from A.D. 500 to 1400 in the context of a novel high spatial resolution, annual reconstruction of the maize dry-farming niche for this same period. We argue that each of the Pecos periods initially incorporates an “exploration” phase, followed by a phase of “exploitation” of niches that are simultaneously ecological, cultural, and organizational. Exploitation phases characterized by demographic expansion and aggregation ended with climatically driven downturns in agricultural favorability, undermining important bases for social consensus. Exploration phases were times of socio-ecological niche discovery and development.

Concepts: Time, Menstrual cycle, Native Americans in the United States, Texas, Invasive species, Colorado, New Mexico, Puebloan peoples

45

Native American populations declined between 1492 and 1900 CE, instigated by the European colonization of the Americas. However, the magnitude, tempo, and ecological effects of this depopulation remain the source of enduring debates. Recently, scholars have linked indigenous demographic decline, Neotropical reforestation, and shifting fire regimes to global changes in climate, atmosphere, and the Early Anthropocene hypothesis. In light of these studies, we assess these processes in conifer-dominated forests of the Southwest United States. We compare light detection and ranging data, archaeology, dendrochronology, and historical records from the Jemez Province of New Mexico to quantify population losses, establish dates of depopulation events, and determine the extent and timing of forest regrowth and fire regimes between 1492 and 1900. We present a new formula for the estimation of Pueblo population based on architectural remains and apply this formula to 18 archaeological sites in the Jemez Province. A dendrochronological study of remnant wood establishes dates of terminal occupation at these sites. By combining our results with historical records, we report a model of pre- and post-Columbian population dynamics in the Jemez Province. Our results indicate that the indigenous population of the Jemez Province declined by 87% following European colonization but that this reduction occurred nearly a century after initial contact. Depopulation also triggered an increase in the frequency of extensive surface fires between 1640 and 1900. Ultimately, this study illustrates the quality of integrated archaeological and paleoecological data needed to assess the links between Native American population decline and ecological change after European contact.

Concepts: Demography, United States, Native Americans in the United States, Indigenous peoples, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, New Mexico, European colonization of the Americas, Population history of American indigenous peoples

30

The hyper-virulent emm59 genotype of invasive group A Streptococcus was identified in northern Arizona in 2015. Eighteen isolates belonging to a genomic cluster grouped most closely with recently identified isolates in New Mexico. The continued transmission of emm59 in the southwestern United States poses a public health concern.

Concepts: Epidemiology, United States, Native Americans in the United States, Mexico, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico

30

Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from 18 sites in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest reveal combinations of methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) indicative of stimulant drinks, probably concocted using either cacao or holly leaves and twigs. The results cover a time period from around A.D. 750-1400, and a spatial distribution from southern Colorado to northern Chihuahua. As with populations located throughout much of North and South America, groups in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest likely consumed stimulant drinks in communal, ritual gatherings. The results have implications for economic and social relations among North American populations.

Concepts: United States, Caffeine, North America, Americas, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, New Mexico, Chocolate, Xanthine

27

Hispanics are underrepresented in medical research. At the National Lung Screening Trial’s University of Colorado Denver screening center, traditional recruitment methods resulted in enrollment of few Hispanics. In response, the center adopted culturally sensitive recruitment techniques, including use of carefully-crafted bilingual materials. Bilingual interviewers were hired, and persons familiar with culture and language of groups of different Hispanic origin were consulted. Representation of Hispanics among participants enrolled at the Colorado center increased nearly threefold, from 3.3 to 9.4 %, after adoption of these methods. In this manuscript, we report on the specialized recruitment methods that were developed and how they were used to address known barriers to Hispanic recruitment.

Concepts: Culture, California, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Hispanic, University of Colorado Denver, Denver

23

To measure specificity as failure rates for non-clinical, bilingual, Mexican Americans on three popular performance validity measures: (a) the language format Reliable Digit Span; (b) visual-perceptual format Test of Memory Malingering; and © visual-perceptual format Dot Counting, using optimal/suboptimal effort cut scores developed for monolingual, English-speakers.

Concepts: United States, Psychometrics, Test method, Reliability, North America, Mexican American, New Mexico, Malingering

13

In the United States, Latinos have poorer access to and utilization of health care than non-Latino whites. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) may reduce these disparities. The ACA’s impact among Latino subgroups is unknown.

Concepts: Health care, United States, California, White American, Hispanic and Latino Americans, New Jersey, Mexican American, New Mexico

12

Available evidence indicates that overall levels of feline intake and euthanasia at U.S. shelters have significantly declined in recent decades. Nevertheless, millions of cats, many of them free-roaming, continue to be admitted to shelters each year. In some locations, as many as 70% of cats, perhaps up to one million or more per year nationally, are euthanized. New approaches, including return-to-field (RTF) and targeted trap-neuter-return (TNR) appear to have transformative potential. The purpose of the present study was to examine changes in feline intake and euthanasia, as well as additional associated metrics, at a municipal animal shelter in Albuquerque, New Mexico, after institutionalized RTF and targeted TNR protocols, together referred to as a community cat program (CCP), were added to ongoing community-based TNR efforts and a pilot RTF initiative. Over the course of the CCP, which ran from April 2012 to March 2015, 11,746 cats were trapped, sterilized, vaccinated, and returned or adopted. Feline euthanasia at the Albuquerque Animal Welfare Department (AAWD) declined by 84.1% and feline intake dropped by 37.6% over three years; the live release rate (LRR) increased by 47.7% due primarily to these reductions in both intake and euthanasia. Modest increases in the percentage of cats returned to owner (RTO) and the adoption rate were also observed, although both metrics decreased on an absolute basis, while the number of calls to the city about dead cats declined.

Concepts: Present, Time, Death, Million, Cat, New Mexico, Euthanasia, Trap-Neuter-Return

9

The actinopterygian fish †Hemicalypterus weiri Schaeffer, 1967 is herein redescribed and rediagnosed based on new information collected from reexamination of museum specimens as well as examination of recently collected specimens from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of San Juan County, Utah, United States. †Hemicalypterus is distinguishable by its deep, disc-shaped compressed body; ganoid-scaled anterior half and scaleless posterior half; spinose, prominent dorsal and ventral ridge scales anterior to dorsal and anal fins; hem-like dorsal and anal fins with rounded distal margins; small mouth gape; and specialized, multicuspid dentition. This type of dentition, when observed in extant fishes, is often associated with herbivory, and †Hemicalypterus represents the oldest known ray-finned fish to have possibly exploited an herbivorous trophic feeding niche. A phylogenetic analysis infers a placement of †Hemicalypterus within †Dapediiformes, with †Dapediiformes being recovered as sister to Ginglymodi within holostean actinopterygians.

Concepts: Biology, Fish, Actinopterygii, Catfish, New Mexico, Neopterygii, Holostei