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Concept: Near infrared spectroscopy

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The present study described a new type of multi-person neurofeedback with the neural synchronization between two participants as the direct regulating target, termed as “cross-brain neurofeedback.” As a first step to implement this concept, an experimental platform was built on the basis of functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and was validated with a two-person neurofeedback experiment. This novel concept as well as the experimental platform established a framework for investigation of the relationship between multiple participants' cross-brain neural synchronization and their social behaviors, which could provide new insight into the neural substrate of human social interactions.

Concepts: Psychology, Sociology, Science, Experiment, Theory, Behavior, Near infrared spectroscopy, Social behavior

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Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been successfully used for non-invasive diagnosis of diseases and abnormalities where water spectral patterns are found to play an important role. The present study investigates water absorbance patterns indicative of estrus in the female giant panda. NIR spectra of urine samples were acquired from the same animal on a daily basis over three consecutive putative estrus periods. Characteristic water absorbance patterns based on 12 specific water absorbance bands were discovered, which displayed high urine spectral variation, suggesting that hydrogen-bonded water structures increase with estrus. Regression analysis of urine spectra and spectra of estrone-3-glucuronide standard concentrations at these water bands showed high correlation with estrogen levels. Cluster analysis of urine spectra grouped together estrus samples from different years. These results open a new avenue for using water structure as a molecular mirror for fast estrus detection.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Regression analysis, Cluster analysis, Water, Infrared spectroscopy, Infrared, Near infrared spectroscopy, Giant Panda

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Conventional arthroscopic evaluation of articular cartilage is subjective and poorly reproducible. Therefore, implementation of quantitative diagnostic techniques, such as near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), is essential. Locations (n = 44) with various cartilage conditions were selected from mature equine fetlock joints (n = 5). These locations and their surroundings were measured with NIRS and OCT (n = 530). As a reference, cartilage proteoglycan (PG) and collagen contents, and collagen network organization were determined using quantitative microscopy. Additionally, lesion severity visualized in OCT images was graded with an automatic algorithm according to International Cartilage Research Society (ICRS) scoring system. Artificial neural network with variable selection was then employed to predict cartilage composition in the superficial and deep zones from NIRS data, and the performance of two models, generalized (including all samples) and condition-specific models (based on ICRS-grades), was compared. Spectral data correlated significantly (p < 0.002) with PG and collagen contents, and collagen orientation in the superficial and deep zones. The combination of NIRS and OCT provided the most reliable outcome, with condition-specific models having lower prediction errors (9.2%) compared to generalized models (10.4%). Therefore, the results highlight the potential of combining both modalities for comprehensive evaluation of cartilage during arthroscopy.

Concepts: Scientific method, Spectroscopy, Bone, Cartilage, Optical coherence tomography, Infrared spectroscopy, Infrared, Near infrared spectroscopy

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Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS) is a potentially life-threatening complication following carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endoarterectomy (CEA). Early prediction and treatment of patients at risk for HPS are required in patients undergoing CAS because HPS occurs significantly earlier after CAS than CEA. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is often used for monitoring, and indocyanine green (ICG) kinetics by NIRS (ICG-NIRS) can detect reductions in cerebral perfusion in patients with acute stroke. However, whether ICG-NIRS can predict postoperative hyperperfusion phenomenon (HP) after carotid revascularization is unclear.

Concepts: Medical terms, Sun, Stroke, Prediction, Futurology, Common carotid artery, Near infrared spectroscopy, Indocyanine green

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The present study investigates brain-to-brain coupling, defined as inter-subject correlations in the hemodynamic response, during natural verbal communication. We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record brain activity of 3 speakers telling stories and 15 listeners comprehending audio recordings of these stories. Listeners' brain activity was significantly correlated with speakers' with a delay. This between-brain correlation disappeared when verbal communication failed. We further compared the fNIRS and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) recordings of listeners comprehending the same story and found a significant relationship between the fNIRS oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration changes and the fMRI BOLD in brain areas associated with speech comprehension. This correlation between fNIRS and fMRI was only present when data from the same story were compared between the two modalities and vanished when data from different stories were compared; this cross-modality consistency further highlights the reliability of the spatiotemporal brain activation pattern as a measure of story comprehension. Our findings suggest that fNIRS can be used for investigating brain-to-brain coupling during verbal communication in natural settings.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Brain, Magnetic resonance imaging, Correlation and dependence, Infrared spectroscopy, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Infrared, Near infrared spectroscopy

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Perceptual color space is continuous; however, we tend to divide it into only a small number of categories. It is unclear whether categorical color perception is obtained solely through the development of the visual system or whether it is affected by language acquisition. To address this issue, we recruited prelinguistic infants (5- to 7-mo-olds) to measure changes in brain activity in relation to categorical color differences by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We presented two sets of geometric figures to infants: One set altered in color between green and blue, and the other set altered between two different shades of green. We found a significant increase in hemodynamic responses during the between-category alternations, but not during the within-category alternations. These differences in hemodynamic response based on categorical relationship were observed only in the bilateral occipitotemporal regions, and not in the occipital region. We confirmed that categorical color differences yield behavioral differences in infants. We also observed comparable hemodynamic responses to categorical color differences in adults. The present study provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, that colors of different categories are represented differently in the visual cortex of prelinguistic infants, which implies that color categories may develop independently before language acquisition.

Concepts: Psychology, Brain, Cognition, Visual perception, Color, Occipital lobe, Near infrared spectroscopy, Color theory

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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite the findings that motor imagery and execution are supposed to share common neural networks, previous studies using imagery-based rehabilitation have revealed inconsistent results. In the present study, we investigated whether feedback of cortical activities (neurofeedback) using near-infrared spectroscopy could enhance the efficacy of imagery-based rehabilitation in stroke patients. METHODS: Twenty hemiplegic patients with subcortical stroke received 6 sessions of mental practice with motor imagery of the distal upper limb in addition to standard rehabilitation. Subjects were randomly allocated to REAL and SHAM groups. In the REAL group, cortical hemoglobin signals detected by near-infrared spectroscopy were fed back during imagery. In the SHAM group, irrelevant randomized signals were fed back. Upper limb function was assessed using the finger and arm subscales of the Fugl-Meyer assessment and the Action Research Arm Test. RESULTS: The hand/finger subscale of the Fugl-Meyer assessment showed greater functional gain in the REAL group, with a significant interaction between time and group (F(2,36)=15.5; P<0.001). A significant effect of neurofeedback was revealed even in severely impaired subjects. Imagery-related cortical activation in the premotor area was significantly greater in the REAL group than in the SHAM group (T(58)=2.4; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that near-infrared spectroscopy-mediated neurofeedback may enhance the efficacy of mental practice with motor imagery and augment motor recovery in poststroke patients with severe hemiparesis.

Concepts: Psychology, Stroke, Motor control, Neuropsychology, Upper limb, Near infrared spectroscopy, Hemiplegia, Hemiparesis

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In this paper we describe the strategy used in the development and validation of a near infrared spectroscopy method for the rapid determination of baicalin, chlorogenic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and the total solid contents (TSCs) in the Tanreqing injection. To increase the representativeness of calibration sample set, a concentrating-diluting method was adopted to artificially prepare samples. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models, with which the five quality indicators can be determined with satisfied accuracy and repeatability. In addition, the slope/bias (S/B) method was used for the models transfer between two different types of NIR instruments from the same manufacturer, which is contributing to enlarge the application range of the established models. With the presented method, a great deal of time, effort and money can be saved when large amounts of Tanreqing injection samples need to be analyzed in a relatively short period of time, which is of great significance to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) industries.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Electromagnetic radiation, Sun, Laser, Infrared spectroscopy, Black body, Infrared, Near infrared spectroscopy

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The vitamin C and polyphenol content of apples constitute quality and nutritional parameters of great interest for consumers, especially in terms of health. They are commonly measured using laborious reference methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and non-destructive method to determine the sugar, vitamin C and total polyphenol content in apples.

Concepts: Nutrition, Glucose, Antioxidant, Vitamin, Vitamin C, Java, Sugar, Near infrared spectroscopy