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Concept: Natural history


A better understanding of the natural history of model organisms will increase their value as model systems and also keep them at the forefront of research.

Concepts: Model organism, Natural environment, Nature, Natural science, Model organisms, Natural history, Big History, History of biology


Specimens of plants and animals preserved in museums are the primary source of verifiable data on the geographical and temporal distribution of organisms. Museum datasets are increasingly being uploaded to aggregated regional and global databases (e.g. the Global Biodiversity Information Facility; GBIF) for use in a wide range of analyses [1]. Thus, digitisation of natural history collections is providing unprecedented information to facilitate the study of the natural world on a global scale. The digitisation of this information utilises information provided on specimen labels, and assumes they are correctly identified. Here we evaluate the accuracy of names associated with 4,500 specimens of African gingers from 40 herbaria in 21 countries. Our data show that at least 58% of the specimens had the wrong name prior to a recent taxonomic study. A similar pattern of wrongly named specimens is also shown for Dipterocarps and Ipomoea (morning glory). We also examine the number of available plant specimens worldwide. Our data demonstrate that, while the world’s collections have more than doubled since 1970, more than 50% of tropical specimens, on average, are likely to be incorrectly named. This finding has serious implications for the uncritical use of specimen data from natural history collections.

Concepts: Biodiversity, Biology, Plant, Natural environment, Nature, Natural history, Museum, Global Biodiversity Information Facility



Increases in illicit pharmaceutical opioid (PO) use have been associated with risk for transition to heroin use. We identify predictors of transition to heroin use among young, illicit PO users with no history of opioid dependence or heroin use at baseline.

Concepts: Natural environment, Morphine, Drug addiction, Heroin, Nature, Natural science, Natural history, Big History



The purpose of this study was to examine the natural history and growth rate of pancreatic serous cystadenomas (SCAs) to determine which factors lead to resection for these benign neoplasms.

Concepts: Natural environment, Benign tumor, Nature, History of science, Natural science, Natural history, Big History, History of biology


To investigate the natural history of white blood cell (WBC) values and incidence of leukocytosis after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), factors associated with development of postoperative leukocytosis, and predictive value of WBC count for infection.

Concepts: Immune system, White blood cell, Natural environment, Culture, Nature, Natural science, Natural history, Timeline of evolution


The association between olmesartan and an enteropathy histologically indistinguishable from untreated celiac disease has recently been described. However, pathogenetic mechanisms leading to villous atrophy, prevalence, natural history and genetic background of this condition have not yet been defined.

Concepts: Natural environment, Nature, History of science, Natural science, Natural philosophy, Natural history, Big History, History of biology


Gallbladder polyps (GBPs) are a common incidental finding on ultrasound (US) examination. The malignant potential of GBPs is debated, and there is limited guidance on surveillance. This systematic review sought to assess the natural history of ultrasonographically diagnosed GBPs and their malignant potential.

Concepts: Oncology, Medical terms, Natural environment, Malignancy, Nature, History of science, Natural science, Natural history