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Concept: Nathaniel Hawthorne

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To assess the extent to which stage at diagnosis and adherence to treatment guidelines may explain the persistent differences in colorectal cancer survival between the USA and Europe.

Concepts: Cancer, European Union, United States, Colorectal cancer, English language, Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson

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Suffering is commonly seen as an unconscious effort to alleviate painful feelings of guilt. However, suffering also aims at averting loss of ego functions and hence loss of mental stability. This second function of suffering is discussed in the light of Freud’s observations of characters wrecked by success and Weiss’s ideas about mutual love as a threat to mental stability. Hawthorne’s portrayal of Arthur Dimmesdale in The Scarlet Letter (1850), biographical material about the author, material from his diaries, and material from a psychotherapy case and an analysis illustrate the function of suffering to preserve mental stability in the face of heightened success and happiness. Hawthorne, it is argued, intuitively grasped this function of suffering in his novel.

Concepts: Psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, Ego psychology, Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter, Carl Jung

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Whipple disease (WD) is an infection caused by the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei (TW). Few cases have been reported in the USA.

Concepts: Disease, Infectious disease, Infection, United States, United States Declaration of Independence, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Tropheryma whipplei, Whipple's disease

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Nathaniel Hawthorne’s short stories “The Birthmark” (1843) and “Rappaccini’s Daughter” (1844) encourage critical thinking about science and scientific research as forms of social power. In this collaborative activity, students work in small groups to discuss the ways in which these stories address questions of human experimentation, gender, manipulation of bodies, and the role of narrative in mediating perceptions about bodies. Students collectively adduce textual evidence from the stories to construct claims and present a mini-argument to the class, thereby strengthening their skills in communication and cooperative interpretation of ethical dilemmas. This exercise is adaptable to shorter and longer periods of instruction, and it is ideal for instructors who collaborate across areas of expertise.

Concepts: Critical thinking, Science, Learning, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Short story, Mosses from an Old Manse, Rappaccini's Daughter, The Old Manse