SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Natalizumab

170

BACKGROUND: The anti-JC virus (JCV) antibody status has been introduced to stratify patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for higher or lower risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential utility of anti-JCV antibody levels for earlier diagnosis or prediction of PML. METHODS: An analytically validated antibody assay was used to determine serological status, normalised optical density values, and dilution titres for anti-JCV antibodies. The method was applied to stored sera of 1157 patients with MS including five cases of PML, all enrolled in the Swedish pharmacovigilance study for natalizumab (NAT). Anticytomegalovirus (CMV) and antivaricella-zoster (VZV) antibody levels served as controls. RESULTS: Prior to treatment with NAT, anti-JCV antibody levels were stable in the anti-JCV positive patients. During therapy, a slight decrease in anti-JCV and anti-VZV antibody levels, but not anti-CMV antibody levels, was observed. All five patients who developed PML showed a mild to moderate increase in anti-JCV antibody levels at time of PML diagnosis; pre-PML samples suggested that this increase might start already prior to diagnosis of PML. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment initiation with NAT may lead to a slight decrease in anti-JCV and anti-VZV antibody levels, suggestive of a mild suppressive effect of NAT on antibody levels. Our findings in five cases of PML demonstrate that the onset of PML can be accompanied by increasing anti-JCV antibodies in serum. Monitoring of anti-JCV antibody levels could potentially be used as a tool for prediction or earlier diagnosis of PML during NAT treatment for MS. Further studies are warranted.

Concepts: Antibody, Density, Multiple sclerosis, ELISA, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, JC virus, Serology, Natalizumab

32

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is associated with natalizumab treatment. We quantified the risk of PML in patients with multiple sclerosis, according to the presence or absence of three risk factors: positive status with respect to anti-JC virus antibodies, prior use of immunosuppressants, and increasing duration of natalizumab treatment.

Concepts: Multiple sclerosis, According to Jim, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Progressive lens, Natalizumab, Treatment of multiple sclerosis

28

JC virus (JCV) is an opportunistic virus known to cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Anti-JC virus (Anti-JCV) antibody prevalence in a large, geographically diverse, multi-national multiple sclerosis (MS) cohort was compared in a cross-sectional study. Overall, anti-JCV antibody prevalence was 57.6%. Anti-JCV antibody prevalence in MS patients ranged from approximately 47% to 68% across these countries: Norway, 47.4%; Denmark, 52.6%; Israel, 56.6%; France, 57.6%; Italy, 58.3%; Sweden, 59.0%; Germany, 59.1%; Austria, 66.7% and Turkey, 67.7%. Prevalence increased with age (from 49.5% in patients < 30 years of age to 66.5% in patients ≥ 60 years of age; p < 0.0001 comparing all age categories), was lower in females than in males (55.8% versus 61.9%; p < 0.0001) and was not affected by prior immunosuppressant or natalizumab use.

Concepts: AIDS, Multiple sclerosis, Oligodendrocyte, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, JC virus, Rituximab, Polyomavirus, Natalizumab

28

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a rare but potentially lethal adverse event in natalizumab treated multiple sclerosis patients. We report on a 40-year old Caucasian man with typical relapsing progressive multiple sclerosis, who developed a reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome after 43 natalizumab infusions mimicking progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind. Our case suggests that awareness ought to be sharpened for reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome in the follow-up of natalizumab treated multiple sclerosis patients.

Concepts: Developed country, Multiple sclerosis, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Progressive lens, Natalizumab, Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, Treatment of multiple sclerosis

28

Not all patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) respond or maintain response to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents and alternative treatment is necessary. Natalizumab, a monoclonal antibody to alpha-4 integrin approved for CD, has demonstrated efficacy in randomized clinical trials. We describe our experience with natalizumab in clinical practice at Mayo Clinic Rochester.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial, Crohn's disease, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Natalizumab

27

The use of natalizumab has likely been limited by its association with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an infection caused by the human polyomavirus John Cunningham (JC). Three factors were recently identified that contribute to the overall risk of natalizumab-associated PML: (1) Positive serostatus for anti-JCV antibodies, (2) prior use of immunosuppressants, and (3) duration of natalizumab therapy. This risk stratification algorithm has not led to a reduction in the incidence of PML in natalizumab-treated patients with multiple sclerosis between April 2010 and February 2014. This observation may appear perplexing, as treatment duration and JCV serostatus are modifiable risk factors. Potential reasons for the lack of success of companion diagnostics that determine the overall risk of natalizumab-associated PML are discussed.

Concepts: Multiple sclerosis, Oligodendrocyte, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Progressive lens, JC virus, Rituximab, Polyomavirus, Natalizumab

25

To describe a case of acute retinal necrosis and subsequent immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a patient with multiple sclerosis treated with natalizumab.

Concepts: Multiple sclerosis, Natalizumab, Treatment of multiple sclerosis

23

Natalizumab (NAT) is associated with the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Risk stratification algorithms have been developed, however, without detectable reduction of PML incidence.

Concepts: Multiple sclerosis, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Progressive lens, Natalizumab, Treatment of multiple sclerosis

8

Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) or Crohn’s disease (CD) being treated with natalizumab (Tysabri®, Biogen) who are planning to become pregnant or discover they are pregnant after exposure to natalizumab are currently advised to balance the potential benefits and potential risks of exposure when considering treatment options. This study was undertaken to evaluate pregnancy outcomes of women with MS or CD who were exposed to natalizumab at any time within 3 months prior to conception or during pregnancy. A pregnancy registry was created to better understand the effect of natalizumab exposure on pregnancy outcomes.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, In vitro fertilisation, Implantation, Multiple birth, Low dose naltrexone, Natalizumab

8

The use of natalizumab for highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is influenced by the occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Through measurement of the anti-JCV antibody index, and in combination with the presence or absence of other known risk factors, it may be possible to stratify patients with MS according to their risk of developing PML during treatment with natalizumab and detect early suspected PML using MRI including a diffusion-weighted imaging sequence. This paper describes a practical consensus guideline for treating neurologists, based on current evidence, for the introduction into routine clinical practice of anti-JCV antibody index testing of immunosuppressant-naïve patients with MS, either currently being treated with, or initiating, natalizumab, based on their anti-JCV antibody status. Recommendations for the frequency and type of MRI screening in patients with varying index-associated PML risks are also discussed. This consensus paper presents a simple and pragmatic algorithm to support the introduction of anti-JCV antibody index testing and MRI monitoring into standard PML safety protocols, in order to allow some JCV positive patients who wish to begin or continue natalizumab treatment to be managed with a more individualised analysis of their PML risk.

Concepts: Risk, Magnetic resonance imaging, Multiple sclerosis, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Progressive lens, JC virus, Natalizumab, Stratification