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Concept: Nasal congestion

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INTRODUCTION: Systemic and topical nasal decongestants are widely used in otorhinolaryngology and general practice for the management of acute rhinosinusitis and as an adjuvant in certain forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. These products, very effective to rapidly improve nasal congestion, are sometimes available over the counter and can be the subject of misuse, which is difficult to control. The Société Française d'ORL has recently issued guidelines concerning the use of these decongestants in the doctor’s office and the operating room. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The review of the literature conducted by the task force studied in detail the concepts of “rebound congestion” and “rhinitis medicamentosa” often reported in a context of misuse, particularly of topical nasal decongestants. The clinical and histopathological consequences of prolonged and repeated use of nasal decongestants have been studied on animal models and healthy subjects. RESULTS: Discordant results have been obtained, as some authors reported a harmful effect of nasal decongestants on the nasal mucosa, while others did not identify any significant changes. No study has been able to distinguish between inflammatory lesions induced by chronic rhinosinusitis and lesions possibly related to the use of nasal decongestants. DISCUSSION: The task force explained the rebound congestion observed after stopping nasal decongestant treatment by return of the nasal congestion induced by rhinosinusitis and rejected the concept of rhinitis medicamentosa in the absence of scientific evidence from patients with rhinosinusitis. CONCLUSION: Nasal decongestants are recommended for the management of acute rhinosinusitis to reduce the consequences of often disabling nasal congestion. They are also recommended during rhinoscopic examination and for preparation of the nasal mucosa prior to endonasal surgery.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Topical, Mucus, Pseudoephedrine, Nasal congestion, Topical decongestant, Rhinitis medicamentosa, Decongestant

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Our main objective was to evaluate the ability of cranberry phytochemicals to modify immunity, specifically gammadelta-T cell proliferation, after daily consumption of a cranberry beverage, and its effect on health outcomes related to cold and influenza symptoms.

Concepts: Bacteria, Influenza, Fatigue, Polyphenol antioxidant, Common cold, Influenza-like illness, Rhinovirus, Nasal congestion

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Most strains of rhinovirus (RV), the common cold virus, replicate better at cool temperatures found in the nasal cavity (33-35 °C) than at lung temperature (37 °C). Recent studies found that although 37 °C temperature suppressed RV growth largely by engaging the type 1 IFN response in infected epithelial cells, a significant temperature dependence to viral replication remained in cells devoid of IFN induction or signaling. To gain insight into IFN-independent mechanisms limiting RV replication at 37 °C, we studied RV infection in human bronchial epithelial cells and H1-HeLa cells. During the single replication cycle, RV exhibited temperature-dependent replication in both cell types in the absence of IFN induction. At 37 °C, earlier signs of apoptosis in RV-infected cells were accompanied by reduced virus production. Furthermore, apoptosis of epithelial cells was enhanced at 37 °C in response to diverse stimuli. Dynamic mathematical modeling and B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) overexpression revealed that temperature-dependent host cell death could partially account for the temperature-dependent growth observed during RV amplification, but also suggested additional mechanisms of virus control. In search of a redundant antiviral pathway, we identified a role for the RNA-degrading enzyme RNAseL. Simultaneous antagonism of apoptosis and RNAseL increased viral replication and dramatically reduced temperature dependence. These findings reveal two IFN-independent mechanisms active in innate defense against RV, and demonstrate that even in the absence of IFNs, temperature-dependent RV amplification is largely a result of host cell antiviral restriction mechanisms operating more effectively at 37 °C than at 33 °C.

Concepts: Asthma, Antiviral drug, Interferon, Influenza, Common cold, Rhinovirus, Nasal congestion, Pleconaril

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Upper respiratory infections (URI) and their complications are a major healthcare burden for pediatric populations. Although the microbiology of the nasopharynx is an important determinant of the complications of URI, little is known of the nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiota of children, the factors that affect its composition, and its precise relationship with URI.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Upper respiratory tract infection, Nasal congestion

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Abstract Objective: The Attitudes of Consumers Toward Health, Cough, and Cold (ACHOO) survey was developed to better inform health care providers on the natural history and impact of common cold and cough, and related consumer experience and behaviors. Research design and methods: Randomly selected US Internet/mobile device users were invited to participate in an online survey (N=3333) in October 2012. Response quotas modeled upon 2010 US Census data ensured a demographically representative sample. To reduce potential bias from the quota design, 75% of the completed surveys were randomly selected as the primary analysis pool. Main Outcome Measures: Survey questions assessed participant demographics, frequency and duration of cough/cold symptoms, impact of symptoms on daily life, treatment preferences, and knowledge about cough/cold pathophysiology. Results: In the past year, 84.6% of respondents had experienced at least 1 cold. Colds typically started with sore/scratchy throat (39.2%), nasal congestion (9.8%), and runny nose (9.3%) and lasted 3-7 days. Cough, the most common cold symptom (73.1%), had a delayed onset (typically 1-5 days after cold onset) and a long duration (>6 days in 35.2%). Nasal congestion and cough were the most bothersome symptoms. Many respondents waited until symptoms were “bad enough” (42.6%) or multiple symptoms were present (20.2%) before using nonprescription medications. Drivers of choice included effectiveness in relieving symptoms, safety, and past experience. Respondents rarely consulted clinicians regarding treatment, and more than three-quarters had never received instructions from a clinician on how to choose a nonprescription cough/cold medication. Misperceptions regarding etiology and treatment of the common cold were prevalent. The main limitation is potential recall bias, since respondents had to recall cough/cold episodes over the prior year. Conclusions: The ACHOO survey confirms that cold is a common, bothersome experience and that there are gaps in consumers' knowledge of pathophysiology and appropriate management of cough/cold.

Concepts: Asthma, Cough, Influenza, Fatigue, Common cold, Rhinorrhea, Dextromethorphan, Nasal congestion

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Acetaminophen is frequently prescribed for treating patients with the common cold, but there is little evidence as to whether it is effective.

Concepts: Asthma, Influenza, Paracetamol, Headache, Common cold, Rhinovirus, Nasal congestion

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Increased bioavailability of phenylephrine is reported when combined with paracetamol in over-the-counter formulations for the symptomatic treatment of the common cold and influenza. Such formulations could increase phenylephrine-related cardiovascular adverse events particularly in susceptible individuals. Quantification of the effect of phenylephrine concentration on blood pressure allows simulation of potential adverse combination therapy effects.

Concepts: Asthma, Influenza, Paracetamol, Headache, Common cold, Influenza-like illness, Rhinovirus, Nasal congestion

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BACKGROUND: The common cold is a spontaneously remitting infection of the upper respiratory tract, characterised by a runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, cough, malaise, sore throat and fever (usually < 37.8˚C). The widespread morbidity it causes worldwide is related to its ubiquitousness rather than its severity. The development of vaccines for the common cold has been difficult because of antigenic variability of the common cold virus and the indistinguishable multiple other viruses and even bacteria acting as infective agents. There is uncertainty regarding the efficacy and safety of interventions for preventing the common cold in healthy people. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of vaccines for preventing the common cold in healthy people. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1948 to January week 1, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to January 2013), CINAHL (1981 to January 2013) and LILACS (1982 to January 2013). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any virus vaccines to prevent the common cold in healthy people. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently evaluated methodological quality and extracted trial data. Disagreements were resolved by discussion or by consulting a third review author. MAIN RESULTS: This review included one RCT with 2307 healthy participants; all of them were analysed. This trial compared the effect of an adenovirus vaccine against a placebo. No statistically significant difference in common cold incidence was found: there were 13 events in 1139 participants in the vaccines group and 14 events in 1168 participants in the placebo group; risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45 to 2.02, P = 0.90). No adverse events related to the live vaccine were reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This Cochrane review has found a lack of evidence on the effects of vaccines for the common cold in healthy people. Only one RCT was found and this did not show differences between comparison groups; it also had a high risk of bias. There are no conclusive data to support the use of vaccines for preventing the common cold in healthy people. We identified the need for well-designed, adequately powered RCTs to investigate vaccines for the common cold in healthy people. Unless RCTs provide evidence of a treatment effect and the trade-off between potential benefits and harms is established, policy-makers, clinicians and academics should not recommend the use of vaccines for preventing the common cold in healthy people. Any future trials on medical treatments for preventing the common cold should assess a variety of virus vaccines for this condition. Outcome measures should include common cold incidence, vaccine safety and mortality related to the vaccine.

Concepts: Asthma, Influenza, Upper respiratory tract infection, Common cold, Rhinorrhea, Malaise, Rhinovirus, Nasal congestion

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BACKGROUND: Common cold is caused by a variety of respiratory viruses. The prevalence in children is high, and it potentially contributes to significant morbidity. Iota-carragenan, a polymer derived from red seaweed, has reduced viral load in nasal secretions and alleviated symptoms in adults with common cold. METHODS: We have assessed the antiviral and therapeutic activity of a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in children with acute symptoms of common cold. A cohort of 153 children between 1–18 years (mean age 5 years), displaying acute symptoms of common cold were randomly assigned to treatment with a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan (0.12 %) as verum or 0.9 % sodium chloride solution as placebo for seven days. Symptoms of common cold were recorded and the viral load of respiratory viruses in nasal secretions was determined at two consecutive visits. RESULTS: The results of the present study showed no significant difference between the iota carrageenan and the placebo group on the mean of TSS between study days 2–7. Secondary endpoints, such as reduced time to clearance of disease (7.6 vs 9.4 days; p = 0.038), reduction of viral load (p = 0.026), and lower incidence of secondary infections with other respiratory viruses (p = 0.046) indicated beneficial effects of iota-carrageenan in this population. The treatment was safe and well tolerated, with less side effects observed in the verum group compared to placebo.. CONCLUSION: In this study iota-carrageenan did not alleviate symptoms in children with acute symptoms of common cold, but significantly reduced viral load in nasal secretions that may have important implications for future studies. Trial registration ISRCTN52519535, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN52519535/

Concepts: Infection, Antiviral drug, Influenza, Sodium chloride, Placebo, Sodium, Fatigue, Nasal congestion

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The inflammatory diseases of the nose, rhino-pharynx and paranasal sinuses (allergic and non allergic rhinitis, NARES; rhinosinusitis with/without nasal polyposis, adenoidal hypertrophy with/without middle ear involvement) clinically manifest themselves with symptoms and complications severely affecting quality of life and health care expenditure. Intranasal administration of corticosteroids, being fast, simple, and not requiring cooperation, is the preferred way to treat the patients, to optimize their quality of life, at the same time minimizing the risk of exacerbations and complications. Among the different topical steroids available on the market, we performed a comparative analysis in terms of effectiveness and safety between mometasone furoate (MF) and its main competitors. Searching through Pub Med and Google Scholar and using as entries “mometasone furoate”, “rhinitis”, “sinusitis”, “asthma”, “polyposis”, “otitis media with effusion”, and “adenoid hypertrophy” we found 344 articles, 300 of which met the eligibility criteria. Taking into account relevance and date of publication, a sample of 40 articles was considered for the review. MF effectiveness for treatment and/or prophylaxis of nasal symptoms in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis has been fully established with a level of evidence Ia. Even though it has not been assessed for MF in particular, topical steroids are the most appropriate treatment in mixed rhinitis and NARES. In acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) evidences support their use as mono-therapy or as adjuvant to antibiotics for reducing the recurrence rate, and decrease the usage of related prescriptions and medical consultations. In chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with Nasal polyposis, MF reduces polyps size, nasal congestion, improves quality of life and sense of smell and it is also effective in the treatment of daytime cough. The topical use of MF has great efficacy in the management of adenoidal hypertrophy and otitis media of atopic children. As regards the safety, MF has demonstrated an excellent safety profile: pregnant women can safely use it; no systemic effects on growth velocity and adrenal suppression have been shown; no changes in epithelial thickness or atrophy have been observed after long term administration of the drug. Conclusions: MF has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of the inflammatory diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses; when compared to its competitors it shows a greater symptom control; it is a reliable treatment in the long term thanks not only to its proven efficacy, but also to its safety being on the market since more than 17 years.

Concepts: Asthma, Inflammations, Sinusitis, Effectiveness, Allergy, Nose, Rhinitis, Nasal congestion