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Concept: Nasal cavity


The tube-crested hadrosaurid dinosaur Parasaurolophus is remarkable for its unusual cranial ornamentation, but little is known about its growth and development, particularly relative to well-documented ontogenetic series for lambeosaurin hadrosaurids (such as Corythosaurus, Lambeosaurus, and Hypacrosaurus). The skull and skeleton of a juvenile Parasaurolophus from the late Campanian-aged (∼75.5 Ma) Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah, USA, represents the smallest and most complete specimen yet described for this taxon. The individual was approximately 2.5 m in body length (∼25% maximum adult body length) at death, with a skull measuring 246 mm long and a femur 329 mm long. A histological section of the tibia shows well-vascularized, woven and parallel-fibered primary cortical bone typical of juvenile ornithopods. The histological section revealed no lines of arrested growth or annuli, suggesting the animal may have still been in its first year at the time of death. Impressions of the upper rhamphotheca are preserved in association with the skull, showing that the soft tissue component for the beak extended for some distance beyond the limits of the oral margin of the premaxilla. In marked contrast with the lengthy tube-like crest in adult Parasaurolophus, the crest of the juvenile specimen is low and hemicircular in profile, with an open premaxilla-nasal fontanelle. Unlike juvenile lambeosaurins, the nasal passages occupy nearly the entirety of the crest in juvenile Parasaurolophus. Furthermore, Parasaurolophus initiated development of the crest at less than 25% maximum skull size, contrasting with 50% of maximum skull size in hadrosaurs such as Corythosaurus. This early development may correspond with the larger and more derived form of the crest in Parasaurolophus, as well as the close relationship between the crest and the respiratory system. In general, ornithischian dinosaurs formed bony cranial ornamentation at a relatively younger age and smaller size than seen in extant birds. This may reflect, at least in part, that ornithischians probably reached sexual maturity prior to somatic maturity, whereas birds become reproductively mature after reaching adult size.

Concepts: Respiratory system, Nasal cavity, Dinosaur, Hadrosaurid, Edmontosaurus, Lambeosaurus, Parasaurolophus, Hypacrosaurus


Foreign bodies lodged in the nasal cavity are a common problem in children, and their removal can be challenging. The published studies relating to the “mother’s kiss” all take the form of case reports and case series. We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of this technique.

Concepts: Evaluation methods, English language, Nose, German language, Nasal cavity, Case series, Case report


The aim of this study was to assess whether migration of thallium-201 (Tl) to the olfactory bulb were reduced in patients with olfactory impairments in comparison to healthy volunteers after nasal administration of Tl.

Concepts: Assessment, Olfactory bulb, Olfactory receptor neuron, Olfaction, Olfactory system, Olfactory nerve, Nasal cavity


We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved “Out of Africa” to explore the more severe climates of Eurasia.

Concepts: Human, Respiratory system, Primate, Humidity, Nose, Computational fluid dynamics, Nasal cavity, Human evolution


The need to breathe links the mammalian olfactory system inextricably to the respiratory rhythms that draw air through the nose. In rodents and other small animals, slow oscillations of local field potential activity are driven at the rate of breathing (∼2-12 Hz) in olfactory bulb and cortex, and faster oscillatory bursts are coupled to specific phases of the respiratory cycle. These dynamic rhythms are thought to regulate cortical excitability and coordinate network interactions, helping to shape olfactory coding, memory, and behavior. However, while respiratory oscillations are a ubiquitous hallmark of olfactory system function in animals, direct evidence for such patterns is lacking in humans. In this study, we acquired intracranial EEG data from rare patients (Ps) with medically refractory epilepsy, enabling us to test the hypothesis that cortical oscillatory activity would be entrained to the human respiratory cycle, albeit at the much slower rhythm of ∼0.16-0.33 Hz. Our results reveal that natural breathing synchronizes electrical activity in human piriform (olfactory) cortex, as well as in limbic-related brain areas, including amygdala and hippocampus. Notably, oscillatory power peaked during inspiration and dissipated when breathing was diverted from nose to mouth. Parallel behavioral experiments showed that breathing phase enhances fear discrimination and memory retrieval. Our findings provide a unique framework for understanding the pivotal role of nasal breathing in coordinating neuronal oscillations to support stimulus processing and behavior.

Concepts: Psychology, Brain, Cerebrum, Hippocampus, Olfactory bulb, Olfaction, Limbic system, Nasal cavity


Background. Naegleria fowleri is a climate-sensitive, thermophilic ameba found in the environment, including warm, freshwater lakes and rivers. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), which is almost universally fatal, occurs when N. fowleri-containing water enters the nose, typically during swimming, and N. fowleri migrates to the brain via the olfactory nerve. In 2011, 2 adults died in Louisiana hospitals of infectious meningoencephalitis after brief illnesses. Methods. Clinical and environmental testing and case investigations were initiated to determine the cause of death and to identify the exposures. Results. Both patients had diagnoses of PAM. Their only reported water exposures were tap water used for household activities, including regular sinus irrigation with neti pots. Water samples, tap swab samples, and neti pots were collected from both households and tested; N. fowleri were identified in water samples from both homes. Conclusions. These are the first reported PAM cases in the United States associated with the presence of N. fowleri in household plumbing served by treated municipal water supplies and the first reports of PAM potentially associated with the use of a nasal irrigation device. These cases occurred in the context of an expanding geographic range for PAM beyond southern tier states with recent case reports from Minnesota, Kansas, and Virginia. These infections introduce an additional consideration for physicians recommending nasal irrigation and demonstrate the importance of using appropriate water (distilled, boiled, filtered) for nasal irrigation. Furthermore, the changing epidemiology of PAM highlights the importance of raising awareness about this disease among physicians treating persons showing meningitislike symptoms.

Concepts: Water, Nasal cavity, Water supply, Naegleria fowleri, Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, Nasal irrigation, Neti pot, Naegleria


Objectives: To evaluate, by using cone beam computed tomography, the skeletal, dental, oropharyngeal (OP) airway volume, and nasal passage (NP) volume changes that occur after rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Materials and Methods: Two groups were selected, each with 35 patients (15 males, 20 females), an RME group (mean age, 14.02 ± 1.46 years) and a control group (mean age, 14.10 ± 1.44 years). The RME group consisted of patients with maxillary constriction who were treated with Hyrax palatal expanders, and the control group comprised age- and sex-matched patients who underwent comprehensive orthodontic treatment without the use of a rapid maxillary expander. Results: All of the transverse skeletal (medial orbital width, lateral nasal width, maxillary width, and mandibular width) and interdental (intermolar, interpremolar, and intercanine) parameters were significantly enlarged in the RME group. A statistically significant increase in airway variables was seen in both groups between pretreatment (T0) and final records (T1). The mean increase of NP airway volume for the RME group (1719.9 ± 1510.7 mm(3)) was twofold compared with the control group (813.6 ± 1006.7 mm(3)), and no intergroup significant difference was found for the OP volume. Conclusions: Rapid maxillary expansion creates a significant increase in nasal passage airway volume but no significant change in the oropharyngeal airway volume.

Concepts: Statistics, Volume, Statistical significance, Medical imaging, Nasal cavity, Maxillary nerve, Oropharyngeal airway, Palatal expander


A 57-year-old woman with a history of atypical intracranial meningioma had undergone multiple craniotomies and endoscopic skull base procedures over several years. She presented most recently with nasal discharge consisting of intranasal larvae. Isolated organisms from the nasal cavity and maxillary sinus were identified as blow fly larvae (Calliphoridae family). The patient was treated with transnasal debridement and antibiotic therapy. The organisms were successfully eradicated and she is free from further signs of infection. Intranasal myiasis is an unusual complication of anterior skull base surgery.

Concepts: Bacteria, Skull, Maxillary sinus, Nasal cavity, Fly, Calliphoridae, Maxillary nerve, Myiasis


Abstract Objective: To test the null hypothesis that there is no difference between the effects of fan-type rapid (FRME) and rapid maxillary expansion (RME) used with an acrylic bonded expansion appliance on dentofacial structures in early occlusal stages. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective clinical trial. The FRME group had an anterior constricted maxillary width with a normal intermolar width, and the RME group had bilateral constricted maxillary width. The FRME group consisted of 20 patients (mean age, 8.96 ± 1.19 years), and the RME group consisted of 22 patients (mean age, 8.69 ± 0.66 years). Lateral and frontal cephalometric radiographs and dental casts were taken before and after expansion and 3 months after completing treatment for each patient. The data were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. The paired-samples t-test was used to evaluate treatment and retention effects, and the independent samples t-test was used to consider the differences between the two groups. Results: The maxilla moved downward and forward in both groups. The nasal cavity and maxillary width were expanded more in the RME group, and there were only a few relapses in this group during the retention period. There was significant labial tipping of the upper incisors in the FRME expansion group. The expansion of intercanine width was similar in both groups, but the expansion of intermolar width was significantly greater in the RME group. Conclusion: The null hypothesis was rejected. There was a difference between the effects of FRME and RME used with an acrylic bonded expansion appliance on dentofacial structures in the early occlusal stages.

Concepts: Statistics, Snake scales, Student's t-test, Normal distribution, Null hypothesis, Nasal cavity, F-test, Levene's test


Empty nose syndrome (ENS) is a rare, late complication of turbinate surgery. The most common clinical symptoms are paradoxical nasal obstruction, nasal dryness and crusting, and a persistent feeling of dyspnea. Little is known about the pathogenesis of ENS, though it is speculated that anatomical changes leading to alterations in local environment, disruption of mucosal cooling, and disruption of neurosensory mechanisms are strongly implicated. The diagnosis is clinical, though often difficult to make due to the poor correlation between subjective and objective findings. Medical therapies include mucosal humidification, irrigations, and emollients. Surgical therapy should be reserved for refractory cases and may involve turbinate reconstruction, most commonly using implantable biomaterials. Ultimately, prevention of this feared complication through turbinate-sparing techniques is essential.

Concepts: Medicine, Therapy, Physician, Mucus, Nose, Nasal cavity, Medical error, Empty nose syndrome