Traditional screen time (e.g. TV and videogaming) has been linked to sleep problems and poorer developmental outcomes in children. With the advent of portable touchscreen devices, this association may be extending down in age to disrupt the sleep of infants and toddlers, an age when sleep is essential for cognitive development. However, this association has not been demonstrated empirically. This study aims to examine whether frequency of touchscreen use is associated with sleep in infants and toddlers between 6 and 36 months of age. An online survey was administered to 715 parents reporting on child media use (daily exposure to TV and use of touchscreens), sleep patterns (night-time and daytime sleep duration, sleep onset - time to fall asleep, and frequencies of night awakenings). Structural equation models controlling for age, sex, TV exposure and maternal education indicated a significant association between touchscreen use and night-time sleep, daytime sleep and sleep onset. No significant effect was observed for the number of night awakenings. To our knowledge, this is the first report linking the use of touchscreen with sleep problems in infants and toddlers. Future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of effects and the mechanisms underlying these associations using detailed sleep tracking.
Greater fish consumption is associated with improved cognition among children, but the mediating pathways have not been well delineated. Improved sleep could be a candidate mediator of the fish-cognition relationship. This study assesses whether 1) more frequent fish consumption is associated with less sleep disturbances and higher IQ scores in schoolchildren, 2) such relationships are not accounted for by social and economic confounds, and 3) sleep quality mediates the fish-IQ relationship. In this cohort study of 541 Chinese schoolchildren, fish consumption and sleep quality were assessed at age 9-11 years, while IQ was assessed at age 12. Frequent fish consumption was related to both fewer sleep problems and higher IQ scores. A dose-response relationship indicated higher IQ scores in children who always (4.80 points) or sometimes (3.31 points) consumed fish, compared to those who rarely ate fish (all p < 0.05). Sleep quality partially mediated the relationship between fish consumption and verbal, but not performance, IQ. Findings were robust after controlling for multiple sociodemographic covariates. To our knowledge, this is the first study to indicate that frequent fish consumption may help reduce sleep problems (better sleep quality), which may in turn benefit long-term cognitive functioning in children.
BACKGROUND: The management of pregnancy in patients with narcolepsy poses many questions regarding therapy, including the risk to the mother and fetus related to the disease, potential risks at the time of conception, the risk to both the mother and the fetus of the medications used to treat narcolepsy, and the risk to the infant from medications that might be secreted in breast milk. There are no detailed practice parameters on the treatment of narcolepsy patients during pregnancy. We surveyed narcolepsy specialists from around the world to determine their clinical approach to the management of patients with narcolepsy at the time of conception, during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. METHODS: Survey invitations were sent via e-mail to 75 clinicians worldwide between 2/2011 and 3/2011 with 34 responses (USA, n=10; Brazil, n=3; Czech Republic, n=2; France, n=2; Italy; n=2; Netherlands, n=2; Canada, n=1; Denmark, n=1; Finland, n=1; Germany, n=1; Japan, n=1; Spain, n=1; unknown n=7). Responders who completed the survey had 20years (median range, 5-35) of experience in sleep medicine practice with a median number of five narcolepsy patients seen per week. The number of pregnant narcoleptic patients followed per physician was five (median range 1-40). RESULTS: The survey results indicated that the management of patients with narcolepsy varies greatly from clinician to clinician and from country to country. The majority of the clinicians stopped the narcolepsy medications at the time of conception, during pregnancy, and during breastfeeding some reduced the dose and others did not change the dosage, depending on the particular medication. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from our survey and literature review suggest that the perceived risks of narcolepsy medication during pregnancy to the mother and the fetus usually are overestimated, as the risk for teratogenic effects from narcolepsy medications in therapeutic doses is essentially nonexistent. However, the potential for rare complications during pregnancy and congenital abnormalities cannot be excluded. Most narcolepsy patients have vaginal delivery without complications. In rare cases patients had cataplexy that interfered with delivery, but if caesarian is required there appears to be no increased anaesthetic or surgical risks. Further prospective information for the appropriate treatment of narcolepsy patients during pregnancy is needed.
Modafinil, in its two clinical formulations (Provigil(®) and Nuvigil(®)), is a widely prescribed wake-promoting therapeutic agent. It binds competitively to the cell-membrane dopamine (DA) transporter and is dependent on catecholaminergic (dopaminergic and adrenergic) signaling for its wake-promoting effects. The clinical spectrum of effects for modafinil is distinct from the effects seen with other catecholaminergic agents. Relative to other commonly used agents that act through catecholaminergic mechanisms, modafinil has a relatively low abuse potential, produces wakefulness with an attenuated compensatory sleep recovery thereafter, and does not ameliorate cataplexy in narcolepsy. These clinically relevant phenomenological differences between modafinil and agents such as amphetamines and cocaine do not eliminate catecholaminergic effects as a possible mediator of its wake-promoting action; they merely reflect its unique pharmacological profile. Modafinil is an exceptionally weak, but apparently very selective, DA transporter inhibitor. The pharmacodynamic response to modafinil, as measured by DA levels in brain microdialyzate, is protracted relative to other agents that act via catecholaminergic mechanisms. The conformational constraints on the interaction of modafinil with the DA transporter - and probably, as a consequence, its effects on trace amine receptor signaling in the catecholaminergic cell - are unique among catecholaminergic agents. These unique pharmacological properties of modafinil should be considered both in seeking to thoroughly understand its putatively elusive mechanism of action and in the design of novel therapeutic agents.
Dissecting the influence of two structural substituents on the differential neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine and mephedrone on dopamine nerve endings with the use of 4-methylmethamphetamine and methcathinone
- The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics
- Published about 4 years ago
Mephedrone (MEPH) is a β-ketoamphetamine stimulant drug of abuse that is often a constituent of illicit bath salts formulations. While MEPH bears remarkable similarities to methamphetamine (METH) in terms of chemical structure, as well as its neurochemical and behavioral effects, it has been shown to have a reduced neurotoxic profile compared to METH. The addition of a β-keto moiety and a 4-methyl ring substituent to METH yields MEPH, and a loss of direct neurotoxic potential. In the present study, 2 analogs of METH, methcathinone (MeCa) and 4-methylmethamphetamine (4MM), were assessed for their effects on mouse dopamine (DA) nerve endings to determine the relative contribution of each individual moiety to the loss of direct neurotoxicity in MEPH. Both MeCa and 4MM caused significant alterations in core body temperature as well as locomotor activity and stereotypy, but 4MM was found to elicit minimal dopaminergic toxicity only at the highest dose. By contrast, MeCa caused significant reductions in all markers of DA nerve ending damage over a range of doses. These results lead to the conclusion that ring substitution at the 4-position profoundly reduces the neurotoxicity of METH, whereas the β-keto group has much less influence on this property. While the mechanism(s) by which the 4-methyl substituent reduces METH-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear, it is speculated that this effect is mediated by a loss of DA-releasing action in MEPH and 4MM at the synaptic vesicle monoamine transporter, an effect that is thought to be critical for METH-induced neurotoxicity.
Psychostimulants like Adderall and Ritalin are widely used for cognitive enhancement by people without ADHD, although the empirical literature has shown little conclusive evidence for effectiveness in this population. This paper explores one potential explanation of this discrepancy: the possibility that the benefit from enhancement stimulants is at least in part motivational, rather than purely cognitive. We review relevant laboratory, survey, and interview research and present the results of a new survey of enhancement users with the goal of comparing perceived cognitive and motivational effects. These users perceived stimulant effects on motivationally-related factors, especially “energy” and “motivation,” and reported motivational effects to be at least as pronounced as cognitive effects, including the effects on “attention.”
Several studies have found an association between sleep duration and morbidity and mortality, but no previous studies have examined the association between sleep disturbances and semen quality. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 953 young Danish men from the general population who were recruited in Copenhagen at the time of determination of fitness for military service between January 2008 and June 2011. All of the men delivered a semen sample, had a blood sample drawn, underwent a physical examination, and answered a questionnaire including information about sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances were assessed on the basis of a modified 4-item version of the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire, which includes questions on sleep patterns during the past 4 weeks. Sleep disturbances showed an inverse U-shaped association with sperm concentration, total sperm count, percent motile and percent morphologically normal spermatozoa, and testis size. Men with a high level of sleep disturbance (score >50) had a 29% (95% confidence interval: 2, 48) lower adjusted sperm concentration and 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 0.3, 3.0) percentage points' fewer morphologically normal spermatozoa than men with a sleep score of 11-20. This appears to be the first study to find associations between sleep disturbances and semen quality. In future studies, investigators should attempt to elucidate mechanistic explanations and prospectively assess whether semen quality improves after interventions restoring a normal sleeping pattern.
- The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science
- Published over 5 years ago
Background Sleep disturbances are commonly reported in the psychosis prodrome, but rarely explored in relation to psychotic experiences. Aims To investigate the relationship between specific parasomnias (nightmares, night terrors and sleepwalking) in childhood and later adolescent psychotic experiences. Method The sample comprised 4720 individuals from a UK birth cohort. Mothers reported on children’s experience of regular nightmares at several time points between 2 and 9 years. Experience of nightmares, night terrors and sleepwalking was assessed using a semi-structured interview at age 12. Psychotic experiences were assessed at ages 12 and 18 using a semi-structured clinical interview. Results There was a significant association between the presence of nightmares at 12 and psychotic experiences at 18 when adjusted for possible confounders and psychotic experiences at 12 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.19-2.20). The odds ratios were larger for those who reported persistent psychotic experiences. Conclusions The presence of nightmares might be an early risk indicator for psychosis.
There is limited information from population-based investigations of the associations between sleep duration and sleep disorders and parameters of glucose homeostasis. The objective of the present study was to examine cross-sectional associations between sleep duration and sleep disordered breathing with concentrations of insulin, fasting and 2-hour glucose, and HbA1c.
Narcolepsy is characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and cataplexy. Histamine neurons are crucial to maintain wakefulness. We assessed the safety and efficacy of pitolisant (previously called BF2.649), a selective histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist that activates these neurons, in patients with narcolepsy.