SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Nano spray dryer

0

siRNA-based therapeutics possess great potential to treat a wide variety of genetic disorders. However, they suffer from low cellular uptake and short half-lives in blood circulation; issues that remain to be addressed. This work is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the production of solid nano-in-nanoparticles, termed double nano carriers (DNCs) by means of the innovative technology of Nano Spray Drying. DNCs (with a median size of 580-770nm) were produced by spraying at low temperatures (50°C) to prevent damage to heat-sensitive biomacromolecules like siRNA. DNCs consisting of Poly (D,L-lactide co-glycolide) used as a wall material, encapsulating 20% human serum albumin primary nanoparticles (PNPs) loaded with siRNA, were obtained as a dry nanoparticulate powder with smooth spherical surfaces and a unique inner morphology. Incubation of pegylated or non-pegylated DNCs under sink conditions at 37°C, elicited a controlled release profile of the siRNA for up to 12 or 24h, respectively, with a minimal burst effect. Prolonged incubation of pegylated DNCs loaded with active siRNA (anti EGFR) in an A549 epithelial cell culture monolayer did not induce any apparent cytotoxicity. A slow degradation of the internalized DNCs by the cells was also observed resulting in the progressive release of the siRNA for up to 6days, as corroborated by laser confocal microscopy. The structural integrity and silencing activity of the double encapsulated siRNA was fully preserved, as demonstrated by HPLC, gel electrophoresis, and potent RNAi activity of siRNA extracted from DNCs. These results demonstrate the potential use of DNCs as a nano drug delivery system for systemic administration and controlled release of siRNA and potentially other sensitive bioactive macromolecules.

Concepts: Sol-gel, Spray nozzle, Scientific method, Nanoparticle, Blood, Nano spray dryer, Nanotechnology, Spray drying

0

The purpose of present work was to develop eugenol oil nanoemulsions using gum arabic and lecithin as food grade natural emulsifiers, and study their antimicrobial activity. In addition, our study also evaluated different drying techniques (spray drying and freeze drying) on the morphology and redispersibility of nanoemulsion powders. The optimal fabrication method, physicochemical and structural characterization, stability, and antimicrobial activity were investigated. Results showed that nanoemusions with a particle size of 103.6±7.5nm were obtained by mixing aqueous phase (0.5% gum arabic, 0.5% lecithin, w/v) and eugenol oil (1.25%, w/v), which premixed with ethanol (as a co-surfactant), followed high speed homogenization process. The molecular interactions among emulsifiers and eugenol were evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Buchi B-90 Nano Spray Dryer was evaluated as a powerful tool to obtain ultrafine spherical powders with a size of less than 500nm, compared to flake-like aggregation obtained by freeze-drying. The dried powders exhibited excellent re-dispersibility in water and maintained their physicochemical properties after re-hydration. The nanoemulsions did not adversely affect the antimicrobial activity of eugenol against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. Therefore, the nanoemulsions have the potential to be applied in the food industry as a food preservative or sanitizer.

Concepts: Unit operations, Emulsion, Fourier transform, Nano spray dryer, Fourier transform spectroscopy, Food preservation, Spectroscopy, Spray drying

0

A central composite design approach was applied to study the effect of polymer concentration, inlet temperature and air flow rate on the spray drying process of the Büchi B-90 nano spray dryer (B-90). Hypromellose acetate succinate-LF was used for the Design of Experiment (DoE) study. Statistically significant models to predict the yield, spray rate, and drying efficiency were generated from the study. The spray drying conditions were optimized according to the models to maximize the yield and efficiency of the process. The models were further validated using a poorly water-soluble investigational compound (BI064) from Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals. The polymer/drug ratio ranged from 1/1 to 3/1w/w. The spray dried formulations were amorphous determined by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction. The particle size of the spray dried formulations was 2-10μm under polarized light microscopy. All the formulations were physically stable for at least 3h when suspended in an aqueous vehicle composed of 1% methyl cellulose. This study demonstrates that DoE is a useful tool to optimize the spray drying process, and the B-90 can be used to efficiently produce amorphous solid dispersions with a limited quantity of drug substance available during drug discovery stages.

Concepts: Solid, Chemistry, Glass transition, Pharmacology, Nano spray dryer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Thermodynamics, Spray drying

0

Reducing particle size of salt to approximately 1.5 μm would increase its surface area, leading to increased dissolution rate in saliva and more efficient transfer of ions to taste buds, and hence, perhaps, a saltier perception of foods. This has a potential for reducing the salt level in surface-salted foods. Our objective was to develop a salt using a nano spray-drying method, to use the developed nano spray-dried salt in surface-salted cheese cracker manufacture, and to evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of cheese crackers. Sodium chloride solution (3% wt/wt) was sprayed through a nano spray dryer. Particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering, and particle shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Approximately 80% of the salt particles produced by the nano spray dryer, when drying a 3% (wt/wt) salt solution, were between 500 and 1,900 nm. Cheese cracker treatments consisted of 3 different salt sizes: regular salt with an average particle size of 1,500 μm; a commercially available Microsized 95 Extra Fine Salt (Cargill Salt, Minneapolis, MN) with an average particle size of 15 μm; and nano spray-dried salt with an average particle size of 1.5 μm, manufactured in our laboratory and 3 different salt concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2% wt/wt). A balanced incomplete block design was used to conduct consumer analysis of cheese crackers with nano spray-dried salt (1, 1.5, and 2%), Microsized salt (1, 1.5, and 2%) and regular 2% (control, as used by industry) using 476 participants at 1 wk and 4 mo. At 4 mo, nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) had significantly higher preferred saltiness scores than the control (regular 2%). Also, at 4 mo, nano spray-dried salt (1.5 and 2%) had significantly more just-about-right saltiness scores than control (regular 2%). Consumers' purchase intent increased by 25% for the nano spray-dried salt at 1.5% after they were notified about the 25% reduction in sodium content of the cheese cracker. We detected significantly lower yeast counts for nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) at 4 mo compared with control (regular) salt (1, 1.5 and 2%). We detected no mold growth in any of the treatments at any time. At 4 mo, we found no significant differences in sensory color, aroma, crunchiness, overall liking, or acceptability scores of cheese crackers using 1.5 and 1% nano spray-dried salt compared with control. Therefore, 25 to 50% less salt would be suitable for cheese crackers if the particle size of regular salt was reduced 3 log to form nano spray-dried salt. A 3-log reduction in sodium chloride particle size from regular salt to nano spray-dried salt increased saltiness, but a 1-log reduction in salt size from Microsized salt to nano spray-dried salt did not increase saltiness of surface-salted cheese crackers. The use of salt with reduced particle size by nano spray drying is recommended for use in surface-salted cheese crackers to reduce sodium intake.

Concepts: Scientific method, Salt, Redox, Block design, Sodium, Sodium chloride, Nano spray dryer, Spray drying

0

Aim of this study was to explore the potential of a design of experiments approach to nanoprecipitation (NPR) and nano spray drying (NSD) as processes for preparing poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) nano- and microparticles. In particular, we determined the feasible size range, critical factors influencing particle size, size distribution or yield, and the robustness towards variations of the batch size.

Concepts: Experimental design, Economics, Laboratory, Statistics, Design of experiments, Nano spray dryer, Experiment, Spray drying

0

Abstract In the current study, polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles entrapping both clozapine (CLZ) and risperidone (RIS) were formulated by spray-drying using Buchi Nano Spray Dryer B-90 (Flawil, Switzerland). Parameters such as inlet temperature, spray mesh diameter, sample flow rate, spray rate and applied pressure were optimized to produce nanoparticles having desired release profile using both low- and high-molecular weight PLGA polymer. Smallest size nanoparticle of size around 248 nm could be prepared using a 4.0 μm mesh diameter with low-molecular weight polymer. The load of CLZ and RIS was 126.3 and 58.2 μg/mg of polymer particles, respectively. Entrapment efficiency of drugs in PLGA nanoparticles was 94.74% for CLZ and 93.12% for RIS. Both the drugs released continuously from the nanoparticle formulations. PLGA nanoparticles formulated using low-molecular weight polymer released around 80% of the entrapped drug over 10 days of time. Nature of drug inside polymer particles was amorphous, and there was no chemical interaction of CLZ and RIS with polymer. Polymeric nanoparticles were found to be non-toxic in nature using PC12 cell line. This nanospray drying process proved to be suitable for developing polymeric nanoformulation delivering dual drugs for the treatment of Schizophrenia.

Concepts: DNA, Pharmacology, Nano spray dryer, Nanotechnology, Entrapment, Cell culture, Sol-gel, Spray drying

0

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding l-leucine and using an ethanolic solvent on the physicochemical properties and aerodynamic behavior of nano spray-dried pyrazinamide (PZA)-l-leucine powders. Materials and methods: A nano spray dryer was employed to prepare PZA-l-leucine powders. The physicochemical properties were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The Andersen cascade impactor was used to evaluate the in vitro aerosolization performance of the sprayed powders. Results and discussion: The incorporation of l-leucine at 10% improved the percentage fine particle fraction (%FPF) in all ethanolic solvent formulations by up to nearly twofold (20.0-23.4%) compared to the normal spray-dried PZA of (8.8-13.0%). Changes in the particle density and morphology were also observed. The dense solid particles of PZA were completely converted to bulk hollow particles with a thin shell by increasing the l-leucine content up to 50%. Higher ethanol concentration resulted in larger dimensions of the hollow particle but did not directly affect the aerosolization performance. The co-spray dried PZA with 20% l-leucine in a 10% ethanol feed solvent gave the best aerosolization performance (FPF = 33.0%). Conclusions: The co-spray dried PZA with a suitable l-leucine content using a nano spray drying technique could be applied to formulate the PZA DPI.

Concepts: Physical chemistry, Electron microscope, Density, Scientific method, Electron, Scanning electron microscope, Nano spray dryer, Spray drying

0

In the current study the feasibility of the novel nano spray drying technique for the production of stable nanoparticulate dry powder, able to gel when administered locally on a wound, is explored. Gentamicin sulphate (GS) was loaded into alginate/pectin nanoparticles as highly soluble (hygroscopic) model drug with wide range antibacterial agent for wound dressing. The influence of process variables, mainly spray mesh size and feed concentration, on particle size and morphology, powder wound fluid uptake ability and gelling rate, as well as hydrogel water vapour transmission at wound site were studied. Particles morphology was spherical with few exceptions as slightly corrugated particles when the larger nozzle was used. Production of spherical nanoparticles (d50 ∼ 350nm) in good yield (82-92%) required 4μm spray mesh whereas 7μm mesh produced larger wrinkled particles. Nano spray-dried particles showed high encapsulation efficiency (∼80%), good flowability, high fluid uptake, fast gel formation (15min) and proper adhesiveness to fill the wound site and to remove easily the formulation after use. Moreover, moisture transmission of the in situ formed hydrogel was between 95 and 90g/m(2)/h, an optimum range to avoid wound dehydration or occlusion phenomena. Release of the encapsulated GS, monitored as permeation rate using Franz cells in simulated wound fluid (SWF) was related to particle size and gelling rate. Sustained permeation profiles were obtained achieving total permeation of the drug between 3 and 6 days. However, all nano spray-dried formulations presented a burst effect, suitable to prevent infection spreading at the beginning of the therapy. Antimicrobial tests against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed stronger and prolonged antimicrobial effect of the nanoparticles compared to pure GS both shortly after administration and over time (till 12 days).

Concepts: Colloid, Bacteria, Nano spray dryer, Infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Nanotechnology, Staphylococcus aureus, Spray drying

0

Solid phospholipid (PL) nanoparticles with griseofulvin (GRIS) as a model drug were prepared by co-spray drying. Their dissolution properties were compared with formulations containing the physical blends of the native crystalline drug and excipient materials, and physical blends of the spray dried materials. Co-spray drying was performed from ethanol+water solutions (80+20) using Büchi Nano Spray Dryer B-90. Dissolution profiles in phosphate buffer (PBS), simulated intestinal fluids (fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) and pancreatin containing media (PAN) were studied. It was found that the influence of PL on the dissolution profile was affected by both the solid state of the drug formulation and the dissolution medium: The co-SD formulations showed the fastest release in all media. The amount of GRIS dissolved after 5h increases by a factor of 7 for the co SD as compared to physical blend of native materials in PBS, and a factor of 4 in FaSSIF respectively. Surprisingly, in contrast to PBS, dissolution rate in FaSSIF decreased with increasing the PL content. All the pancreatin containing media showed a decrease in dissolution rate and extent independently of the processing methods due to an incompatibility between GRIS and PAN.

Concepts: Drying, Pharmacology, Liquid, Fluid mechanics, Nanomaterials, Pharmaceutical formulation, Nano spray dryer, Spray drying

0

Pharmaceutical suspension containing oral dosage forms delivering both immediate-release and sustained-release amoxicillin was developed as a new dosage form to eradicate Helicobacter pylori. Amoxicillin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles are able to bind with the mucosal membrane after delivery to the stomach and could escalate the effectiveness of a drug, providing dual release. The objective of this study was to develop amoxicillin nanoparticles using innovative new technology - the Büchi Nano Spray Dryer B-90 - and investigate such features as drug content, particle morphology, yield, in vitro release, flow properties, and stability. The nanoparticles had an average particle size of 571 nm. The drug content and percentage yield was 89.2% ± 0.5% and 93.3% ± 0.6%, respectively. Angle of repose of nanoparticle suspension was 26.3° and bulk density was 0.59 g/cm(3). In vitro drug release of formulations was best fitted by first-order and Peppas models with R (2) of 0.9841 and 0.9837 respectively; release profile was 15.9%, while; for the original drug, amoxicillin, under the same conditions, 90% was released in the first 30 minutes. The nanoparticles used in this study enabled sustained release of amoxicillin over an extended period of time, up to 12 hours, and were stable for 12 months under accelerated storage conditions of 25°C ± 2°C and 60% ± 5% relative humidity.

Concepts: Nano spray dryer, Relative humidity, Nanotechnology, Spray drying, Colloid, Helicobacter pylori, Stomach, Pharmacology