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Concept: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator


This study sought to determine whether using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) would detect differences in personality preferences in first-year dental students admitted to the same dental school through different admission methods. First-year dental students admitted in 2000 and 2001 were given the MBTI instrument during orientation prior to the start of classes. In fall 2000, the Class of 2004 had 140 students, with 116 in the traditional track and twenty-four in the parallel problem-based learning (PBL) track. In fall 2001, the Class of 2005 had 144 students, all enrolled in the PBL curriculum. All students admitted to the PBL track had experienced a process that included evaluation of their participation in a small group. Students in the traditional track had individual interviews with faculty members. Both student groups were required to meet the same baseline grade point average and Dental Admission Test standards. In 2000, the PBL students showed personality preferences that were distinctly different from the personality preferences of traditional track students in the categories of Extroversion (89 percent PBL, 44 percent traditional) and Thinking (72 percent PBL, 39 percent traditional). In 2001, the all-PBL class retained the trend towards Extroversion (69 percent). This study suggests that admission method may effectively change the personality preference distribution exhibited by the students who are admitted to dental school.

Concepts: Personality psychology, Psychometrics, Carl Jung, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, David Keirsey, INFP, INFJ


Objective-To assess student awareness of the financial costs of pursuing a veterinary education, to determine student expectations for financial returns of a veterinary career, and to identify associations between student debt and factors such as future career plans or personality type. Design-Survey. Sample-First-year veterinary students at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine. Procedures-In 2013, prior to the first day of class, all incoming first-year students received an email invitation to complete an online survey. The survey contained questions about demographics, current financial situation, current debt, expected debt at graduation, expected annual income following graduation, intent to pursue specialty training, and Myers-Briggs personality type. Results-72 of 102 (71%) students completed the survey; 65 respondents answered all relevant questions and provided usable data. Student responses for expected debt at graduation were comparable to national averages for veterinary college graduates; responses for expected annual income following graduation were lower than averages for University of Minnesota veterinary college graduates and national averages. However, students predicted even lower annual income if they did not attend veterinary college. Expected debt and expected annual income were not correlated with factors such as personality type or future career plans. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that first-year veterinary students were aware of the financial costs of their veterinary education and had realistic expectations for future salaries. For typical veterinary students, attending veterinary college appeared to be financially worthwhile, given lower expected earnings otherwise. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:196-203).

Concepts: Medicine, Personality psychology, Education, University, Income, Veterinarian, Debt, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator


The aims of the study were (a) to establish norms for the Swedish child self-report and caregiver rating versions of the Junior and Temperament Character Inventory (JTCI) among young adolescents, (b) to investigate its psychometric properties, and © to investigate congruence between children’s self-reports and caregivers' ratings of a child’s personality. The sample was a general population of 1,046 children ages 12-14 years and 654 caregivers. The JTCI was found to be reliable on all dimensions except Persistence in the child self-report version. Caregivers rated their own children’s personalities as more mature than did the children themselves. Caregivers especially overestimated their daughters' self-reported capabilities for self-acceptance and self-efficacy and might have underestimated their daughters' need for emotional support. This highlights the importance of including the child’s self-report on personality in both research and clinical assessments. The results also support the importance of age- and gender-separated norms. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Family, Psychology, Personality psychology, Educational psychology, Emotion, The Child, Personality, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator


The aim of this study was to determine whether the personality types of dental students and their group dynamics were linked to their problem-based learning (PBL) performance. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) instrument was used with 263 dental students enrolled in Seoul National University School of Dentistry from 2011 to 2013; the students had participated in PBL in their first year. A four-session PBL setting was designed to analyze how individual personality types and the diversity of their small groups were associated with PBL performance. Overall, the results showed that the personality type of PBL performance that was the most prominent was Judging. As a group became more diverse with its different constituent personality characteristics, there was a tendency for the group to be higher ranked in terms of PBL performance. In particular, the overperforming group was clustered around three major profiles: Extraverted Intuitive Thinking Judging (ENTJ), Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ISTJ), and Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ESTJ). Personality analysis would be beneficial for dental faculty members in order for them to understand the extent to which cooperative learning would work smoothly, especially when considering group personalities.

Concepts: Personality psychology, Carl Jung, Socionics, Personality typologies, Keirsey Temperament Sorter, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, David Keirsey, ISTJ


This study investigated the learning styles and personality type of undergraduate radiation therapy students at the University of Otago, Wellington (UOW) in New Zealand (NZ) to ascertain whether there is a pattern evidenced for this group and how that might compare with NZ medical imaging students. All students enrolled in the first year of the Bachelor of Radiation Therapy degree from 2014 to 2016 at the UOW were invited to participate in this research. The test tool was the Paragon Learning Style Inventory (PLSI), which is a standardised questionnaire adapted from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). All students who participated in the workshops consented for their data to be used for this project. The current study is longitudinal, and will continue for five years in total. The initial findings indicate that the cohorts of RT students exhibit personality and learning style preferences similar in Introversion/Extraversion and Thinking/Feeling to the proportion expected in the normal population. However, the Sensing/Intuition and Judging/Perceiving dichotomies show some similarities to the medical imaging students studied, who fell considerably outside that expected in the normal population. Overall, the dominant preference combinations identified, although different in degree, were similar to those of medical imaging students. The continuation of the radiation therapy study is important to ascertain more fully whether the results are particular to these cohorts of students or are trending towards showing a pattern of personality and learning style within the profession.

Concepts: Medicine, Personality psychology, Bachelor's degree, Carl Jung, Learning styles, DISC assessment, Socionics, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator


This study examines the stability of the response process and the rank-order of respondents responding to 3 personality scales in 4 different response conditions. Applicants to the University College of Teacher Education Styria (N = 243) completed personality scales as part of their college admission process. Half a year later, they retook the same personality scales in 1 of 3 randomly assigned experimental response conditions: honest, faking-good, or reproduce. Longitudinal means and covariance structure analyses showed that applicants' response processes could be partially reproduced after half a year, and respondents seemed to rely on an honest response behavior as a frame of reference. Additionally, applicants' faking behavior and instructed faking (faking-good) caused differences in the latent retest correlations and consistently affected measurement properties. The varying latent retest correlations indicated that faking can distort respondents' rank-order and thus the fairness of subsequent selection decisions, depending on the kind of faking behavior. Instructed faking (faking-good) even affected weak measurement invariance, whereas applicants' faking behavior did not. Consequently, correlations with personality scales-which can be utilized for predictive validity-may be readily interpreted for applicants. Faking behavior also introduced a uniform bias, implying that the classically observed mean raw score differences may not be readily interpreted.

Concepts: Scientific method, Quantum mechanics, Frame of reference, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator


Myers-Briggs typology is widely seen as equivalent to and representative of Jungian theory by the users of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and similar questionnaires. However, the omission of the transcendent function from the theory, and the use of typological functions as its foundation, has resulted in an inadvertent reframing of the process of individuation. This is despite some attempts to integrate individuation and typology, and reintroduce the transcendent function into Myers-Briggs theory. This paper examines the differing views of individuation in Myers-Briggs and Jungian theory, and some of the challenges of reconciling those differences, particularly in the context of normality. It proposes eight principles, drawn mainly from Jungian and classical post-Jungian work, that show how individuation as a process can be integrated with contemporary Myers-Briggs typology. These principles show individuation as being a natural process that can be encouraged outside of the analytic process. They make use of a wide range of opposites as well as typological functions, whilst being centred on the transcendent function. Central to the process is the alchemical image of the caduceus and a practical interpretation of the axiom of Maria, both of which Jung used to illustrate the process of individuation.

Concepts: Personality psychology, Carl Jung, Socionics, Analytical psychology, Keirsey Temperament Sorter, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Jungian psychology, INFP


From the mid-1930s to the end of his life, Jung complained that most readers misunderstood the main point of his book Psychological Types. He viewed being a type as one-sided and problematic for a variety of reasons. His symbol-based solution to the ‘type problem’ involved developing a transcendent function to become the new dominant function of consciousness. However, this function has not featured in the popular use of his typology and Isabel Briggs Myers believed that the one-sidedness of Jung’s eight types could be balanced by the auxiliary function. This has led to the transcendent function being widely ignored, and to a developmental philosophy that encourages a degree of one-sidedness. This divergence of popular type theory and analytical psychology is the result of various factors, such as Jung describing typology as containing four functions, and a letter in 1950 where Jung apparently supported Myers' version of type theory. This hinders the application of analytical psychology to normal psychology, and particularly individual and cultural development. If we refer to Jung’s typology as containing five functions not four, this more accurately represents both the content of the book Psychological Types and the primary value Jung saw in typology.

Concepts: Psychology, Personality psychology, Carl Jung, Ordered pair, Socionics, Psychological Types, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Axiom of reducibility


The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the association between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and prospective psychiatry residents.

Concepts: Carl Jung, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator


This study was performed to develop a counseling strategy, based on the profiles of medical students' Strong Interest Inventory (STRONG) and Myer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) results, focusing on the three following questions: Into what distinct levels are students categorized by STRONG and MBTI? and What is the dispersion of the integrated profiles?

Concepts: Personal development, Personality tests, Strong Interest Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Kingdomality