SciCombinator

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Concept: Mycobacterium genavense

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We report a case of disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection resulting from neutralizing anti-interferon-γ autoantibodies in the patient. We identified M. genavense targeting the hsp65 gene in an aspiration specimen of the lymph node. Adult-onset immunodeficiency caused by neutralizing anti-interferon-γ autoantibodies, in addition to HIV infection, can lead to disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection.

Concepts: HIV, Immune system, Patient, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Corynebacterineae, Acid fast bacilli, Mycobacterium genavense

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Mycobacterium genavense is a non-tuberculous mycobacterium which can rarely cause disease in non-HIV immunocompromised hosts. We describe our experience with this unusual infection and perform a systematic review of the literature to describe the features of M. genavense infection in non-HIV immunocompromised hosts.

Concepts: Immune system, Disease, Infectious disease, Opportunistic infection, Infection, Mycobacterium, Corynebacterineae, Mycobacterium genavense

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Nontuberculous mycobacteria infrequently cause disseminated infections in immunocompetent hosts. However, they are increasingly being recognized in immunocompromised patients. We present the case of a 40-year-old HIV-positive male presenting with lymphadenopathies and pancytopenia in whom disseminated infection, with bone marrow involvement by Mycobacterium genavense (M. genavense) was diagnosed.

Concepts: Immune system, Bone marrow, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Nontuberculous mycobacteria, Corynebacterineae, Acid fast bacilli, Mycobacterium genavense

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Renal transplant recipients are highly susceptible to infections caused by uncommon pathogens because of their immunocompromised state. We report a case of disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in a patient with a combined renal and cardiac transplant. Diagnosing M. genavense infections remains a challenge because of the absence of specific clinical symptoms in combination with the difficulties of culturing the organism using standard mycobacterial culture procedures. This clinical case demonstrates the importance of molecular techniques as part of the initial work-up in order to rapidly establish the diagnosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Opportunistic infection, Mycobacterium, Organ transplant, Corynebacterineae, Acid fast bacilli, Mycobacterium genavense