SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Muscadine

165

BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDING: The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. CONCLUSION: Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were minor components.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Resveratrol, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Vitis riparia, Vitis labrusca, Muscadine

146

Endophytes proved to exert multiple effects on host plants, including growth promotion, stress resistance. However, whether endophytes have a role in metabolites shaping of grape has not been fully understood. Eight endophytic fungal strains which originally isolated from grapevines were re-inoculated to field-grown grapevines in this study, and their effects on both leaves and berries of grapevines at maturity stage were assessed, with special focused on secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities. High-density inoculation of all these endophytic fungal strains modified the physio-chemical status of grapevine to different degrees. Fungal inoculations promoted the content of reducing sugar (RS), total flavonoids (TF), total phenols (TPh), trans-resveratrol (Res) and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), in both leaves and berries of grapevine. Inoculation of endophytic fungal strains, CXB-11 (Nigrospora sp.) and CXC-13 (Fusarium sp.) conferred greater promotion effects in grape metabolic re-shaping, compared to other used fungal strains. Additionally, inoculation of different strains of fungal endophytes led to establish different metabolites patterns of wine grape. The work implies the possibility of using endophytic fungi as fine-tuning regulator to shape the quality and character of wine grape.

Concepts: Fungus, Vitis vinifera, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Vitis riparia, Endophyte, Muscadine

27

In this study, the adsorption/desorption characteristics of anthocyanins on five Amberlite resins (FPX-66, XAD-7HP, XAD-16N, XAD-1180 and XAD-761) were evaluated. FPX-66 and XAD-16N showed the highest adsorption and desorption capacities, and ratios for anthocyanins from muscadine pomace extract, while XAD-7HP had the lowest adsorption and desorption capacities, and ratios. Based on static adsorption and desorption tests three resins (FPX-66, XAD-16N and XAD-1180) were selected for adsorption kinetics and isotherms. The adsorption mechanism was better explained by the pseudo-first order kinetics for FPX-66 and XAD-16N; however, for XAD-1180 pseudo-second order kinetics was the most suitable model. The experimental data fitted best to Langmuir isotherm model for all the three resins. Dynamic testing was done on a column packed with FPX-66 resin and breakthrough volume was reached at 17 bed volumes of muscadine pomace water extract during adsorption. Three bed volumes of aqueous ethanol (70%) resulted in complete desorption. Resin adsorption resulted in a concentrated pomace extract that contained 13% (w/w) anthocyanins with no detectable sugars.

Concepts: Adsorption, Software testing, Grape, Vitis, Surface chemistry, Langmuir equation, Muscadine, Petunidin

27

We present stilbenoid profiles of canes from sixteen grapevines. Fifteen stilbenoids were obtained through either isolation and structure identification using MS, NMR, and [α](D) or commercial standards. An HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous quantification of nine of these stilbenoids was developed and applied to canes of V. amurensis, V. arizonica, V. berlandieri, V. betulifolia, V. cinerea, V. x champini, V. x doaniana, V. labrusca, V. candicans (syn. V. mustangensis), V. riparia, V. rupestris, V. vinifera, Muscadinia rotundifolia, and a V. vinifera x M. rotundifolia hybrid. In these species, ampelopsin E, amurensin B, piceid, piceatannol, resveratrol, resveratroloside, ε-viniferin, ω-viniferin, and E-vitisin B were quantified, when found in sufficient amounts. Total concentrations ranged from ~2.2 to 19.5 g/kg dry weight. Additional stilbenoids, ampelopsin, 3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 2-C-glucoside, ampelopsin E, Z-trans-miyabenol C, E-trans-miyabenol C, scirpusin A, and Z-vitisin B, were identified, but not quantified. Our results indicate that canes, particularly those of non-vinifera species, have substantial quantities of valuable, health promoting stilbenoids.

Concepts: Resveratrol, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Muscadine, Stilbenoid, Piceatannol, Piceid

25

New therapies are being explored as therapeutic options for men with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer (BRPC) who wish to defer androgen deprivation therapy. MPX is pulverized muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) skin that contains ellagic acid, quercetin, and resveratrol and demonstrates preclinical activity against prostate cancer cells in vitro.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Prostate cancer, Radiation therapy, Resveratrol, Grape, Vitis, Muscadine

7

Vinification of grapes (Vitis vinifera) exposed to forest fire smoke can yield unpalatable wine due to the presence of taint compounds from smoke and the release of smoke derived volatiles from their respective glycosides during the fermentation process or in-mouth during consumption. To identify glycosyltransferases (GTs) involved in the formation of glycosidically bound smoke-derived volatiles we performed gene expression analysis of candidate GTs in different grapevine tissues. Secondly, substrates derived from bushfire smoke or naturally occurring in grapes were screened with the candidate recombinant GTs. A resveratrol GT (UGT72B27) gene, highly expressed in grapevine leaves and berries was identified to be responsible for the production of the phenolic glucosides. UGT72B27 converted the stilbene trans-resveratrol mainly to the 3-O-glucoside. Kinetic analyses yielded specificity constants (kcat/KM) of 114, 17, 9, 8 and 2 mM-1 s-1 for guaiacol, trans-resveratrol, syringol, methylsyringol and methylguaiacol, respectively. This knowledge will help to design strategies for managing the risk of producing smoke-affected wines.

Concepts: Gene expression, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Muscadine

6

Grapes are one of the world’s most valuable crops and most are made into wine. Grapes belong to the genus Vitis, which includes over 60 inter-fertile species. The most common grape cultivars derive their entire ancestry from the species Vitis vinifera, but wild relatives have also been exploited to create hybrid cultivars, often with increased disease resistance.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Muscadine

4

The genus Vitis (the grapevine) is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world’s most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs). We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Vitis riparia, Vitis labrusca, Muscadine

3

The grape yeast biota from several wine-producing areas, with distinct soil types and grapevine training systems, was assessed on five islands of Azores Archipelago, and differences in yeast communities composition associated with the geographic origin of the grapes were explored. Fifty-seven grape samples belonging to the Vitis vinifera grapevine cultivars Verdelho dos Açores (Verdelho), Arinto da Terceira (Arinto) and Terrantez do Pico (Terrantez) were collected in two consecutive years and 40 spontaneous fermentations were achieved. A total of 1710 yeast isolates were obtained from freshly crushed grapes and 1200 from final stage of fermentations. Twenty-eight species were identified, Hanseniaspura uvarum, Pichia terricola and Metschnikowia pulcherrima being the three most representative species isolated. Candida carpophila was encountered for the first time as an inhabitant of grape or wine-associated environments. In both sampling years, a higher proportion of H. uvarum in fresh grapes from Verdelho cultivar was observed, in comparison with Arinto cultivar. Qualitatively significant differences were found among yeast communities from several locations on five islands of the Archipelago, particularly in locations with distinctive agro-ecological compositions. Our results are in agreement with the statement that grape-associated microbial biogeography is non-randomly associated with interactions of climate, soil, cultivar, and vine training systems in vineyard ecosystems. Our observations strongly support a possible linkage between grape yeast and wine typicality, reinforcing the statement that different viticultural terroirs harbor distinctive yeast biota, in particular in vineyards with very distinctive environmental conditions.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Wine, Grape, Vitis, Vitaceae, Viticulture, Muscadine, Vine training systems

3

A diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and a grape-derived compound, resveratrol, have been linked to a reduced incidence of colon cancer. In vitro and in vivo, resveratrol suppresses Wnt signaling, a pathway constitutively activated in over 85 % of colon cancers.Thirty participants were placed on a low resveratrol diet and subsequently allocated to one of three groups ingesting 1/3-to-1 lb (0.15-0.45 kg) of grapes per day for 2 weeks. Dietary information was collected via 24-h recall. Colon biopsies for biomarker analysis were obtained pre- and post-grape and evaluated for the expression of Wnt pathway target genes and for markers of proliferation by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.Participants lost an average of 2 · 6 lb (1.2 kg, p = 0 · 0018) during the period of grape ingestion. The expression of CyclinD1 (p < 0 · 01), AXIN2, CD133 (p = 0 · 02) and Ki67 (p = 0 · 002) were all reduced after grape ingestion. Individuals over 50 years of age and those with high dietary arginine consumption had increased basal expression of CyclinD1, AXIN2, cMYC and CD133 (p value range 0 · 04 to <0 · 001) that, following grape ingestion, were reduced to levels seen in younger participants.The reduction in Wnt signaling and mucosal proliferation seen following short-term ingestion of 1/3-1 lb (0.15-0.45 kg) of grapes per day may reduce the risk of mutational events that can facilitate colon carcinogenesis. The potential benefit is most marked for high-risk older individuals and individuals whose diet is high in arginine intake. Dietary grape supplementation may play a role in colon cancer prevention for high-risk individuals.

Concepts: Cancer, Eating, Digestive system, In vivo, Colon, In vitro, Fruit, Muscadine