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Concept: MT-TL1

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BACKGROUND: POLG1 mutations have been associated to MELAS-like phenotypes. However given several clinical differences it is unknown whether POLG1 mutations are possible causes of MELAS or give raise to a distinct clinical and genetic entity, named POLG1-associated encephalopathy. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 74 years old man carrying POLG1 mutations presenting with strokes, myopathy and ragged red fibers with some atypical aspects for MELAS such as late onset, lack of cerebral calcification and presence of frontal and occipital MRI lesions better consistent with the POLG associated-encephalopathy spectrum. CONCLUSION: The lack of available data hampers a definite diagnosis in our patient as well as makes it difficult to compare MELAS, which is a clearly defined clinical syndrome, with POLG1-associated encephalopathy, which is so far a purely molecularly defined syndrome with a quite heterogeneous clinical picture. However, the present report contributes to expand the phenotypic spectrum of POLG1 mutations underlining the importance of searching POLG1 mutations in patients with mitochondrial signs and MELAS like phenotypes but negative for common mtDNA mutations.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Natural selection, Evolution, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondrial diseases, MT-TH, MT-TL1

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Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome(1) is one of the most frequently inherited mitochondrial disorders. MELAS syndrome is a systemic disease with multiple organ involvement.(2) The most common mutation in MELAS is the m.3243A>G mutation in the MT-TL1 gene.(2).

Concepts: Diseases and disorders, Mitochondrion, Mitochondrial DNA, Genetic disorders, Mitochondrial disease, Mitochondrial diseases, MT-TL1, Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes

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The aim of this study was to investigate the clinically latent brain atrophy of patients with mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) harboring a mitochondrial DNA A3243G mutation (A3243G) and A3243G carriers without stroke-like episodes (SEs).

Concepts: DNA, Bacteria, Adenosine triphosphate, Mitochondrion, MT-TL1

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The Mitochondrial tRNALeu (MT-TL1) mutation, m.3243A>G constitutes the commonest identified mitochondrial genome mutation. Characteristically, giving rise to MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes), a phenotypic spectrum associated with this genetic variant is now apparent. We report on the first patient with infantile hemiparesis, without comorbid encephalopathy, attributed to this variant. This further expands the recognized disease spectrum and highlights the need to consider mitochondrial genomic mutations in cases of cryptogenic focal neurological deficit in infancy. The potential for genetic disease modifiers is additionally discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Cancer, Genetic disorder, Mutation, Evolution, MT-TL1

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The nucleotide change A to G at position m.3243 in the mitochondrial tRNA leucine (UUR) gene (MT-TL1) is the most common point mutation reported in association with the Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome. Since the original description of this disorder, factors including random mitochondrial segregation and consequent variable tissue heteroplasmy are recognised to contribute to a much broader phenotypic spectrum associated with the MT-TL1 m.3243A>G mutation, often rendering the process of making a diagnosis complex. Reliance on clinicians' referral patterns means that for most molecular diagnostic laboratories, their positive identification rates for the common pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, including MT-TL1 m.3243A>G, is often relatively low compared to those reported in clinically targeted research studies. Herein, we report our results of consecutive prospective screening of 745 patients with a clinically suspected mitochondrial syndrome encompassing features associated with MT-TL1 m.3243A>G mutation.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Mutation, Bacteria, Evolution, Mitochondrial DNA, MT-TL1

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Renal dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a potential clinical feature of mitochondrial cytopathies such as mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lacticacidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome. Five cases of MELAS syndrome with renal involvement from 4 unrelated families are presented in this case series. Three of the 5 patients had a history of maternally-inherited diabetes and/or deafness. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and arteriolar hyaline thickening were the most striking findings on renal biopsy. In addition to clinical presentation with the typical symptoms of MELAS syndrome, genetic testing in these patients identified the A3243G point mutation in the tRNALeu gene of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The diagnosis of MELAS syndrome was thus considered to be unequivocal. The incidence of kidney disease in MELAS syndrome may be underestimated although a study is required to investigate this hypothesis. As the A3243G mtDNA mutation leads to a progressive adult-onset form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), screening for the MELAS A3243G mtDNA mutation should therefore be performed especially in patients with maternally-inherited diabetes or hearing loss presenting with FSGS.

Concepts: DNA, Genetics, Cancer, Mitochondrion, Mitochondrial DNA, Nephrotic syndrome, Mitochondrial disease, MT-TL1

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Mitochondrial dysfunction manifests in many forms during childhood. There is no effective therapy for the condition; hence symptomatic therapy is the only option. The effect of symptomatic therapy are not well known. We present clinical course, diagnosis and effect of current treatments for six children suffering from mitochondrial encephalomyopathy identified by clinical demonstrations, brain MRI findings and DNA mutations. Two were male and four were female. Their age ranged between 2 and 17 years. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained in three and one showed misshaped and enlarged mitochondria under electron microscope. mtDNA mutation frequency was >30%. Five children were diagnosed with MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes) and one with Leigh’s syndrome (LS). All were given cocktail and symptomatic treatments. One of the five MELAS children died from severe complications. The other four MELAS children remain alive; four showed improvement, and one remained unresponsive. Of the four who showed improvement, two do not have any abnormal signs and the other two have some degree of motor developmental delay and myotrophy. The LS child is doing well except for ataxia. Until better therapy such as mitochondrial gene therapy is available, cocktail and symptomatic treatments could at least stabilize these children.

Concepts: DNA, Mutation, Mitochondrion, Mitochondrial DNA, Child, Mutation rate, Mitochondrial disease, MT-TL1

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Abstract Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) are progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with polygenetic, maternally inherited mutations in mitochondrial DNA. Approximately 80% of MELAS cases are caused by the mutation m.3243A>G of the mitochondrial tRNA(Leu (UUR)) gene (MT-TL1). We reported two probands with MELAS features. Muscle biopsy identified ragged-red fibers (RRF) in Gomori Trichrome staining. A respiratory chain function study showed decreased activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I in both probands. Sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA revealed two novel MT-ND1 gene missense mutations, m.3959G>A and m.3995A>G, which are highly conserved among species. Protein secondary structure predictions demonstrated that these mutations may alter the peptide structure and may lead to decreased ND1 gene stability. Our findings suggest that these two novel mutations may contribute to the MELAS phenotypes of the patients in our study.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Mutation, Bacteria, Mitochondrion, Point mutation, MT-TL1, Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes