SciCombinator

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Concept: Mouse

188

Cancer risk is an important concern for galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, which consist of a wide-energy range of protons, heavy ions and secondary radiation produced in shielding and tissues. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors for surrogate cancer endpoints in cell culture models and tumor induction in mice vary considerable, including significant variations for different tissues and mouse strains. Many studies suggest non-targeted effects (NTE) occur for low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, leading to deviation from the linear dose response model used in radiation protection. Using the mouse Harderian gland tumor experiment, the only extensive data-set for dose response modelling with a variety of particle types (>4), for the first-time a particle track structure model of tumor prevalence is used to investigate the effects of NTEs in predictions of chronic GCR exposure risk. The NTE model led to a predicted risk 2-fold higher compared to a targeted effects model. The scarcity of data with animal models for tissues that dominate human radiation cancer risk, including lung, colon, breast, liver, and stomach, suggest that studies of NTEs in other tissues are urgently needed prior to long-term space missions outside the protection of the Earth’s geomagnetic sphere.

Concepts: Mouse, Radioactive decay, Radiation, Neutron, Ionizing radiation, Neutron radiation, Electron, Cancer

172

Resveratrol is a bioactive polyphenol enriched in red wine that exhibits many beneficial health effects via multiple mechanisms. However, it is unclear whether resveratrol is beneficial for the prevention of food allergy. This study investigated whether resveratrol inhibited the development of food allergy by using a mouse model of the disease.

Concepts: Mouse, Human, French Paradox, Polyphenol, Nutrition, Allergy, Wine, Resveratrol

168

Studies on bimatoprost were performed with two objectives: (i) to determine whether bimatoprost possesses hair growth-stimulating properties beyond eyelash hypertrichosis and (ii) to investigate the biodisposition of bimatoprost in skin for the first time. Bimatoprost, at the dose used clinically for eyelash growth (0.03%) and given once daily for 14 days, increased pelage hair growth in C57/black 6 mice. This occurred as a much earlier onset of new hair growth in shaved mice and the time taken to achieve complete hair regrowth, according to photographic documentation and visual assessment. Bimatoprost biodisposition in the skin was determined at three concentrations: 0.01%, 0.03% and 0.06%. Dose-dependent C(max) values were obtained (3.41, 6.74, 12.3 μg/g tissue), and cutaneous bimatoprost was well maintained for 24 h following a single dose. Bimatoprost was recovered from the skin only as the intact molecule, with no detectable levels of metabolites. Thus, bimatoprost produces hypertrichosis as the intact molecule.

Concepts: Hair removal, Hair follicle, According to Jim, Mouse, Keratin, Tissue, Facial hair, Skin

167

BACKGROUND: A specific and sensitive UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of curcuminoids. These Curcuminoids comprises of curcumin, a principal curcuminoid and other two namely, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin obtained from rhizomes of Curcuma longa an ancient Indian curry spice turmeric, family (Zingiberaceae), METHODS: These analytes were separated on a reverse phase C18 column by using a mobile phase of acetonitrile: 5% acetonitrile in water with 0.07% acetic acid (75:25 v/v), flow rate of 100 muL/min was maintained. The qTOF-MS was operated under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using electro-spray ionization (ESI) technique with positive ion polarity. The major product ions in the positive mode for curcuminoids were at m/z 369.1066, 339.1023 and 309.0214 respectively. The recovery of the analytes from mouse plasma was optimized using solid phase extraction technique. RESULTS: The total run time was 5 min and the peaks of the compounds, bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin occurred at 2.06, 2.23 and 2.40 min respectively. The calibration curves of bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin were linear over the concentration range of 2–1000 ng/mL (r2, 0.9951), 2–1000 ng/mL (r2, 0.9970) and 2-1000 ng/mL (r2, 0.9906) respectively.Intra-assay and inter-assay accuracy in terms of% bias for curcumin was in between -7.95to +6.21, and -7.03 to + 6.34; for demethoxycurcumin was -6.72 to +6.34, and -7.86 to +6.74 and for bisdesmetoxycurcumin was -8.23 to +6.37 and -8.47 to +7.81. The lower limit of quantitation for curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin was 2.0 ng/mL. Analytes were stable under various conditions (in autosampler, during freeze-thaw, at room temperature, and under deep-freeze conditions). This validated method was used during pharmacokinetic studies of curcumin in the mouse plasma. CONCLUSIONS: A specific, accurate and precise UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS method for the determination of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin both individually and simultaneously was optimized.

Concepts: Analytical chemistry, Mouse, Ion, Curcuma, Zingiberaceae, Curcumin, Curry, Turmeric

163

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes acute central nervous system (CNS) disease in humans, in whom the clinical symptoms vary from febrile illness to meningitis and encephalitis. However, the mechanism of severe encephalitis has not been fully elucidated. In this study, using a mouse model, we investigated the pathogenetic mechanisms that correlate with fatal JEV infection. Following extraneural infection with the JaOArS982 strain of JEV, infected mice exhibited clinical signs ranging from mild to fatal outcome. Comparison of the pathogenetic response between severe and mild cases of JaOArS982-infected mice revealed increased levels of TNF-α in the brains of severe cases. However, unexpectedly, the mortality rate of TNF-α KO mice was significantly increased compared with that of WT mice, indicating that TNF-α plays a protective role against fatal infection. Interestingly, there were no significant differences of viral load in the CNS between WT and TNF-α KO mice. However, exaggerated inflammatory responses were observed in the CNS of TNF-α KO mice. Although these observations were also obtained in IL-10 KO mice, the mortality and enhanced inflammatory responses were more pronounced in TNF-α KO mice. Our findings therefore provide the first evidence that TNF-α has an immunoregulatory effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNS during JEV infection and consequently protects the animals from fatal disease. Thus, we propose that the increased level of TNF-α in severe cases was the result of severe disease, and secondly that immunopathological effects contribute to severe neuronal degeneration resulting in fatal disease. In future, further elucidation of the immunoregulatory mechanism of TNF-α will be an important priority to enable the development of effective treatment strategies for Japanese encephalitis.

Concepts: Encephalitis, Mouse, Symptom, Inflammation, Infection, Brain, Central nervous system, Nervous system

158

A20 has been suggested to limit NF-κB activation by removing regulatory ubiquitin chains from ubiquitinated substrates. A20 is a ubiquitin-editing enzyme that removes K63-linked ubiquitin chains from adaptor proteins, such as RIP1, and then conjugates them to K48-linked polyubiquitin chains to trigger proteasomal degradation. To determine the role of the deubiquitinase function of A20 in downregulating NF-κB signaling, we have generated a knock-in mouse that lacks the deubiquitinase function of A20 (A20-OTU mice). These mice are normal and have no signs of inflammation, have normal proportions of B, T, dendritic, and myeloid cells, respond normally to LPS and TNF, and undergo normal NF-κB activation. Our results thus indicate that the deubiquitinase activity of A20 is dispensable for normal NF-κB signaling.

Concepts: Normal distribution, Ubiquitin, Mouse, Normality, Protein, Gene, Proteasome, Enzyme

149

Despite advances to targeted leishmanicidal chemotherapy, defies around severe toxicity, recent emergence of resistant variants and absence of rational vaccine still persist. This necessitates search and/or progressive validation of accessible medicinal remedies including plant based. The study examined both in vivo and in vitro response of L. major infection to combined therapy of Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica extracts in BALB/c mice as the mouse model. A comparative study design was applied.

Concepts: Animal testing, Rodent, Rat, In vivo, In vitro, Mouse, Mice, Immune system

135

Severe amyloidosis and plaque-localized neuro-inflammation are key pathological features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In addition to astrocyte and microglial reactivity, emerging evidence suggests a role of gut microbiota in regulating innate immunity and influencing brain function. Here, we examine the role of the host microbiome in regulating amyloidosis in the APPSWE/PS1ΔE9 mouse model of AD. We show that prolonged shifts in gut microbial composition and diversity induced by long-term broad-spectrum combinatorial antibiotic treatment regime decreases Aβ plaque deposition. We also show that levels of soluble Aβ are elevated and that levels of circulating cytokine and chemokine signatures are altered in this setting. Finally, we observe attenuated plaque-localised glial reactivity in these mice and significantly altered microglial morphology. These findings suggest the gut microbiota community diversity can regulate host innate immunity mechanisms that impact Aβ amyloidosis.

Concepts: Animal model, Neuron, Mouse, Antibiotic, Gut flora, Immune system, Bacteria, Innate immune system

120

Using a conditioning paradigm, we assessed the olfactory sensitivity of six CD-1 mice (Mus musculus) for six sulfur-containing odorants known to be components of the odors of natural predators of the mouse. With all six odorants, the mice discriminated concentrations <0.1 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with five of the six odorants the best-scoring animals were even able to detect concentrations <1 ppt (parts per trillion). Four female spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) and twelve human subjects (Homo sapiens) tested in parallel were found to detect the same six odorants at concentrations <0.01 ppm, and with four of the six odorants the best-scoring animals and subjects even detected concentrations <10 ppt. With all three species, the threshold values obtained here are generally lower than (or in the lower range of) those reported for other chemical classes tested previously, suggesting that sulfur-containing odorants may play a special role in olfaction. Across-species comparisons showed that the mice were significantly more sensitive than the human subjects and the spider monkeys with four of the six predator odorants. However, the human subjects were significantly more sensitive than the mice with the remaining two odorants. Human subjects and spider monkeys significantly differed in their sensitivity with only two of the six odorants. These comparisons lend further support to the notion that the number of functional olfactory receptor genes or the relative or absolute size of the olfactory bulbs are poor predictors of a species' olfactory sensitivity. Analysis of odor structure-activity relationships showed that in both mice and human subjects the type of alkyl rest attached to a thietane and the type of oxygen moiety attached to a thiol significantly affected olfactory sensitivity.

Concepts: Predation, Olfactory system, Parts-per notation, Odor, Human, Mouse, Olfaction, Primate

118

The microbiome of wild Mus musculus (house mouse), a globally distributed invasive pest that resides in close contact with humans in urban centers, is largely unexplored. Here, we report analysis of the fecal virome of house mice in residential buildings in New York City, NY. Mice were collected at seven sites in Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn, and the Bronx over a period of 1 year. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing of feces revealed 36 viruses from 18 families and 21 genera, including at least 6 novel viruses and 3 novel genera. A representative screen of 15 viruses by PCR confirmed the presence of 13 of these viruses in liver. We identified an uneven distribution of diversity, with several viruses being associated with specific locations. Higher mouse weight was associated with an increase in the number of viruses detected per mouse, after adjusting for site, sex, and length. We found neither genetic footprints to known human viral pathogens nor antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.IMPORTANCE Mice carry a wide range of infectious agents with zoonotic potential. Their proximity to humans in the built environment is therefore a concern for public health. Laboratory mice are also the most common experimental model for investigating the pathobiology of infectious diseases. In this survey of mice trapped in multiple locations within New York City over a period of 1 year, we found a diverse collection of viruses that includes some previously not associated with house mice and others that appear to be novel. Although we found no known human pathogens, our findings provide insights into viral ecology and may yield models that have utility for clinical microbiology.

Concepts: Manhattan, Microbiology, The Bronx, New York, Mouse, Murinae, New York City, House mouse