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Concept: Motive


Although people often assume that multiple motives for doing something will be more powerful and effective than a single motive, research suggests that different types of motives for the same action sometimes compete. More specifically, research suggests that instrumental motives, which are extrinsic to the activities at hand, can weaken internal motives, which are intrinsic to the activities at hand. We tested whether holding both instrumental and internal motives yields negative outcomes in a field context in which various motives occur naturally and long-term educational and career outcomes are at stake. We assessed the impact of the motives of over 10,000 West Point cadets over the period of a decade on whether they would become commissioned officers, extend their officer service beyond the minimum required period, and be selected for early career promotions. For each outcome, motivation internal to military service itself predicted positive outcomes; a relationship that was negatively affected when instrumental motives were also in evidence. These results suggest that holding multiple motives damages persistence and performance in educational and occupational contexts over long periods of time.

Concepts: Motivation, Outcome, Intrinsic and extrinsic properties, Multiplication, Philosophical terminology, Motive, Officer


Although television medical dramas have been popular for a long time and have delivered health- and medical-related information to audiences, few studies have focused on audience’s view. This study explores motives for and consequences of viewing medical dramas from the uses and gratifications (U&G) perspective. A survey identified college students' motives toward medical drama viewing and the relationship of the motives with individuals' health information orientation, audience activity (selectivity, attention, involvement), and their use of health information learned from the dramas. Although viewers' primary motive for viewing medical drama was not to gather health information, only health information motive, among all motives, directly predicted use of health information from medical dramas. Viewers' entertainment-related motives toward medical drama viewing indirectly and positively predicted use of information in the dramas via involvement with those dramas, and indirectly and negatively via attention to the story in those dramas. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

Concepts: Health care, Entertainment, Drama, Audience, Motive, Medical drama, Theatre, View


This study tested the measurement invariance of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised Short Form (DMQ-R-SF) in undergraduates across 10 countries. We expected the four-factor structure to hold across countries, and for social motives to emerge as the most commonly endorsed motive, followed by enhancement, coping and conformity motives. We also compared individualistic and collectivistic countries to examine potential differences in the endorsement of drinking motives when countries were divided according to this broad cultural value.

Concepts: Sociology, According to Jim, Motive, Vivica A. Fox


Studies on crowding out document that incentives sometimes backfire-decreasing motivation in prosocial tasks. In the present research, we demonstrated an additional channel through which incentives can be harmful. Incentivized advocates for a cause are perceived as less sincere than nonincentivized advocates and are ultimately less effective in persuading other people to donate. Further, the negative effects of incentives hold only when the incentives imply a selfish motive; advocates who are offered a matching incentive (i.e., who are told that the donations they successfully solicit will be matched), which is not incompatible with altruism, perform just as well as those who are not incentivized. Thus, incentives may affect prosocial outcomes in ways not previously investigated: by crowding out individuals' sincerity of expression and thus their ability to gain support for a cause.

Concepts: Present, Effect, Motivation, Incentive, Donation, Motive, Accountable Fundraising, Incentive program


The purpose of this study was to examine food choice motives associated with various organic and conventional dietary patterns among 22,366 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food choice motives were assessed using a validated 63-item-questionnaire gathered into nine food choice motive dimension scores: “absence of contaminants”, “avoidance for environmental reasons”, “ethics and environment”, “taste”, “innovation”, “local and traditional production”, “price”, “health” and “convenience”. Five consumers' clusters were identified: “standard conventional food small eaters”, “unhealthy conventional food big eaters”, “standard organic food small eaters”, “green organic food eaters” and “hedonist moderate organic food eaters”. Relationships between food choice motive dimension scores and consumers' clusters were assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models adjusted for sociodemographic factors. “Green organic food eaters” had the highest mean score for the “health” dimension, while “unhealthy conventional food big eaters” obtained the lowest mean score for the “absence of contaminants” dimension. “Standard organic food small eaters”, “green organic food eaters” and “hedonist moderate organic food eaters” had comparable scores for the “taste” dimension. “Unhealthy conventional food big eaters” had the highest mean score for the “price” dimension while “green organic food eaters” had the lowest mean scores for the “innovation” and “convenience” dimensions. These results provide new insights into the food choice motives of diverse consumers' profiles including “green” and “hedonist” eaters.

Concepts: Cohort study, Epidemiology, Nutrition, Scores, Standard, Organic food, Sustainable agriculture, Motive


Target group-specific intervention strategies are often called for in order to effectively promote exercise and sport. Currently, motives and goals are rarely included systematically in the design of interventions, despite the key role they play in well-being and adherence to exercise. The Bernese motive and goal inventory (BMZI) allows an individual diagnosis of motives and goals in exercise and sport in people in middle adulthood. The purpose of the present study was to elaborate on the original BMZI and to modify the questionnaire in order to improve its psychometric properties. The study is based on data from two samples (sample A: 448 employees of companies and authorities; sample B: 853 patients of a medical rehabilitation programme). We applied confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modelling. Overall, both the original and the updated BMZI had an acceptable to good validity and a good reliability. However, the revised questionnaire had slightly better reliability. The updated BMZI consists of 23 items and covers the following motives and goals: Body/Appearance, Contact, Competition/Performance, Aesthetics, Distraction/Catharsis, Fitness and Health. It is recommended as an economical inventory for the individual diagnosis of important psychological conditions for exercise and sport.

Concepts: Following, Educational psychology, Psychometrics, Factor analysis, Confirmatory factor analysis, Structural equation modeling, Motive, Sports equipment


Researchers have long been interested in studying differences in implicit motive between different groups. Implicit motives are typically measured by scoring text that respondents have written in response to picture cues. Recently, research on the measurement of implicit motives has made progress through the application of a dynamic Thurstonian item-response theory model (DTM; Lang, 2014 ) that captures 2 basic motivational processes in motivational research: motive competition and dynamic reduction of motive strength after a motive has been acted out. In this article, the authors use the DTM to investigate differential item functioning (DIF) in implicit motive measures. The article first discusses DIF in the context of the DTM. The authors then conduct a DIF analysis of data from a study that used a picture set of the Operant Motive Test (OMT; Kuhl & Scheffer, 2002) with participants from Cameroon, Germany, and Costa Rica. Results showed no evidence of DIF in 9 pictures and some evidence for DIF in 3 pictures. The authors show a partial invariance model can be specified and use this partial invariance model to study latent mean differences between Cameroon, Germany, and Costa Rica. The discussion focuses on the use of IRT DIF methods in future research on implicit motives.

Concepts: Measurement, Educational psychology, Psychometrics, Cultural studies, Motivation, Global Peace Index, Costa Rica, Motive


Unnecessary invasive procedures risk harming patients physically, emotionally, and financially. Very little is known about the factors that provide the motive, means, and opportunity (MMO) for unnecessary procedures.

Concepts: United States, Retrospective, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, California, Guam, Great Lakes, Motive


The Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ-R) is the most widely administered instrument to assess reasons for consuming alcohol and is conventionally premised on a four-factor structure. Recent research instead reveals that a bifactor measurement model of five motive factors (one general and four specific) represents a superior psychometric embodiment of the scale. The current study evaluated and compared the predictive validity of the four-factor and five-factor models of drinking motives in longitudinally explaining alcohol use and problems.

Concepts: Scientific method, Structure, Hierarchy, Psychometrics, Validity, Construct validity, Predictive validity, Motive


A coherent practice of mens rea (‘guilty mind’) ascription in criminal law presupposes a concept of mens rea which is insensitive to the moral valence of an action’s outcome. For instance, an assessment of whether an agent harmed another person intentionally should be unaffected by the severity of harm done. Ascriptions of intentionality made by laypeople, however, are subject to a strong outcome bias. As demonstrated by the Knobe effect, a knowingly incurred negative side effect is standardly judged intentional, whereas a positive side effect is not. We report the first empirical investigation into intentionality ascriptions made by professional judges, which finds (i) that professionals are sensitive to the moral valence of outcome type, and (ii) that the worse the outcome, the higher the propensity to ascribe intentionality. The data shows the intentionality ascriptions of professional judges to be inconsistent with the concept of mens rea supposedly at the foundation of criminal law.

Concepts: Intentionality, Concepts in metaphysics, Thought, Criminal law, Intention, Motive, Mens rea, Actus reus