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Concept: Morning sickness


We report information about an unpublished 1970s study (“8-way” Bendectin Study) that aimed to evaluate the relative therapeutic efficacy of doxylamine, pyridoxine, and dicyclomine in the management of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. We are publishing the trial’s findings according to the restoring invisible and abandoned trials (RIAT) initiative because the trial was never published.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Randomized controlled trial,, Efficacy, The Trial, Nausea, Trial, Morning sickness


Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, occurs in 0.3-2% of pregnancies and is associated with maternal and fetal morbidity. The cause of HG remains unknown, but familial aggregation and results of twin studies suggest that understanding the genetic contribution is essential for comprehending the disease etiology. Here, we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for binary (HG) and ordinal (severity of nausea and vomiting) phenotypes of pregnancy complications. Two loci, chr19p13.11 and chr4q12, are genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8) in both association scans and are replicated in an independent cohort. The genes implicated at these two loci are GDF15 and IGFBP7 respectively, both known to be involved in placentation, appetite, and cachexia. While proving the casual roles of GDF15 and IGFBP7 in nausea and vomiting of pregnancy requires further study, this GWAS provides insights into the genetic risk factors contributing to the disease.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Genetics, Fetus, Genome-wide association study, Vomiting, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness


This is a pilot study to investigate the type and severity of emotional distress in women after early pregnancy loss (EPL), compared with a control group with ongoing pregnancies. The secondary aim was to assess whether miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy impacted differently on the type and severity of psychological morbidity.

Concepts: Psychology, Pregnancy, Obstetrics, Abortion, Miscarriage, Human chorionic gonadotropin, Ectopic pregnancy, Morning sickness


Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), or intractable vomiting during pregnancy, is the single most frequent cause of hospital admission in early pregnancy. HG has a major impact on maternal quality of life and has repeatedly been associated with poor pregnancy outcome such as low birth weight. Currently, women with HG are admitted to hospital for intravenous fluid replacement, without receiving specific nutritional attention. Nasogastric tube feeding is sometimes used as last resort treatment. At present no randomised trials on dietary or rehydration interventions have been performed. Small observational studies indicate that enteral tube feeding may have the ability to effectively treat dehydration and malnutrition and alleviate nausea and vomiting symptoms. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of early enteral tube feeding in addition to standard care on nausea and vomiting symptoms and pregnancy outcomes in HG patients.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obstetrics, Dehydration, Vomiting, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness


The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger) have been used since ancient times as a traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complaints. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, particularly gingerols and shogaols. Various preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated ginger as an effective and safe treatment for nausea and vomiting in the context of pregnancy and as an adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Here, we provide an update and analysis of ginger use for the prevention of nausea and vomiting, with a focus on the types and presentations of ginger available. We also examine the pharmacokinetic properties of ginger and highlight the type and posology of ginger and its metabolites.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Clinical trial, Effectiveness, Pharmacokinetics, Nausea, Ginger, Morning sickness, Zingiber


Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy have been associated with a reduced risk for pregnancy loss. However, most prior studies enrolled women with clinically recognized pregnancies, thereby missing early losses.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Clinical trial, Abortion, Miscarriage, Human chorionic gonadotropin, Nausea, Morning sickness


Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy (NVEP) is commonly encountered in family medicine. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a popular nonpharmacological treatment but consensus of its use is lacking.

Concepts: Vomiting, Nausea, Ginger, Morning sickness, Zingiberaceae, Zingiber, Motion sickness, Seasickness


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of adverse perinatal outcome in women with hyperemesis gravidarum and identify prognostic factors. STUDY DESIGN: This is a case-control study in which outcomes of first pregnancies were compared between 254 women with hyperemesis gravidarum treated with intravenous fluids and 308 controls. Prognostic factors were identified by comparing the clinical profile of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum with a normal and an adverse pregnancy outcome. Binary responses were analyzed using either a Chi-square or Fisher exact test and continuous responses were analyzed using a t-test. RESULTS: Women with hyperemesis gravidarum have over a 4-fold increased risk of poor outcome including preterm birth and lower birth weight (p<0.0001). Among maternal characteristics, only gestational hypertension had an influence on outcome (p<0.0001). Treatment as an outpatient and/or by alternative medicine (acupuncture/acupressure/Bowen massage) was associated with a positive outcome (p<0.0089). Poor outcomes were associated with early start of symptoms (p<0.019), and treatment with methylprednisolone (p<0.0217), promethazine (p<0.0386), and other antihistamines [diphenhydramine (Benadryl), dimenhydrinate (Gravol), doxylamine (Unisom), hydroxyzine (Vistaril/Atarax), doxylamine and pyridoxine (Diclectin/Bendectin)] (p<0.0151) independent of effectiveness. Among these medications, only the other antihistamines were prescribed independent of severity: they were effective in less than 20% of cases and were taken by almost 50% of patients with an adverse outcome. CONCLUSION: Poor outcomes are significantly greater in women with HG and are associated with gestational hypertension, early symptoms, and antihistamine use. Given these results, there is an urgent need to address the safety and effectiveness of medications containing antihistamines in women with severe nausea of pregnancy.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Obstetrics, Antiemetic, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness, Diphenhydramine


Abstract Cyclical vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a disorder that occurs mostly in children, adolescents and young adults in which episodes of nausea and vomiting occur up to six to 12 times per year. In the past decade, one specific cause of cyclical vomiting syndrome, referred to as cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS), has been described in a subset of patients who report chronic marijuana use. Of interest, almost all of these patients report compulsive bathing in hot water as part of the syndrome. In this report, we present the case of a 20-year-old female with CHS, review the issues generally encountered in CVS and discuss the known details of CHS. This is an important syndrome that needs to be considered as a potential diagnosis when patients present with cyclical vomiting.

Concepts: Time, Cannabis, Vomiting, Ondansetron, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness, Cyclic vomiting syndrome


BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is a normal, commonly experienced affliction of early pregnancy. Despite this, its impact on women’s lives is not necessarily minimal. For some women, the implications of NVP are substantial with multi-faceted effects, hindering their ability to maintain usual life activities, and particularly their ability to work. In an effort to understand the effect of NVP, several researchers have developed NVP measurement tools, which enable an understanding of NVP’s effect on quality of life (QOL). PROBLEM: This paper seeks to provide a review of the literature to explore the impact of NVP on women’s quality of life, particularly their ability to maintain social and professional commitments. METHOD: Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Ebsco, Science Direct, Health Source, Academic Search Premiere, Cochrane databases were extensively searched using Boolean operators with various combinations of relevant terms: nausea, vomiting, pregnancy, emesis, quality of life, QOL, NVPQOL, PUQE, SF-12, SF-36 and limited to those published from 1999 onwards. Papers were scrutinised to include those discussing the impact of normal NVP on women’s lives, particularly their QOL with careful exclusion of those addressing hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). FINDINGS: NVP has a significant effect on women’s QOL and therefore their ability to maintain day-to-day activities as well as work capacity. This has implications for the woman, her partner, her family and her employers. CONCLUSION: It is important that all maternity care workers consider the impact of NVP on the woman’s QOL and that care is given not to minimise this experience. Further research is warranted which considers ways in which women can best manage this experience in relation to social and professional commitments. Given the authors were able to identify only one Australian study in this area, published in 2000 and utilising non-NVP specific QOL measurement tools, there exists scope for additional local studies using NVP-specific QOL tools to determine the impact of QOL for Australian women and therefore Australian society.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Obstetrics, Quality, Vomiting, Nausea, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Morning sickness