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Concept: Montmorency cherry

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This investigation examined the impact of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC) on physiological indices of oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage across 3 days simulated road cycle racing. Trained cyclists (n = 16) were divided into equal groups and consumed 30 mL of MC or placebo (PLA), twice per day for seven consecutive days. A simulated, high-intensity, stochastic road cycling trial, lasting 109 min, was completed on days 5, 6 and 7. Oxidative stress and inflammation were measured from blood samples collected at baseline and immediately pre- and post-trial on days 5, 6 and 7. Analyses for lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1-β), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and creatine kinase (CK) were conducted. LOOH (p < 0.01), IL-6 (p < 0.05) and hsCRP (p < 0.05) responses to trials were lower in the MC group versus PLA. No group or interaction effects were found for the other markers. The attenuated oxidative and inflammatory responses suggest MC may be efficacious in combating post-exercise oxidative and inflammatory cascades that can contribute to cellular disruption. Additionally, we demonstrate direct application for MC in repeated days cycling and conceivably other sporting scenario's where back-to-back performances are required.

Concepts: Inflammation, Cycling, C-reactive protein, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Road bicycle racing, Cherries, Montmorency cherry, Road cycling

95

Tart cherries contain numerous polyphenolic compounds that could potentially improve endothelial function and reduce cardiovascular disease risk.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular disease, Prunus, Cherry, Cherries, Montmorency cherry, Sour cherry, Cherry blossom

50

Tart Montmorency cherries have been reported to contain high levels of phytochemicals including melatonin, a molecule critical in regulating the sleep-wake cycle in humans.

Concepts: Circadian rhythm, Prunus, Cherry, Melatonin, Cherries, Montmorency cherry, Sour cherry, Cherry blossom

31

The impact of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) concentrate (MC) on physiological indices and functional performance was examined following a bout of high-intensity stochastic cycling. Trained cyclists (n = 16) were equally divided into 2 groups (MC or isoenergetic placebo (PLA)) and consumed 30 mL of supplement, twice per day for 8 consecutive days. On the fifth day of supplementation, participants completed a 109-min cycling trial designed to replicate road race demands. Functional performance (maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), cycling efficiency, 6-s peak cycling power) and delayed onset muscle soreness were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial. Blood samples collected at baseline, immediately pre- and post-trial, and at 1, 3, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial were analysed for indices of inflammation (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)), oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides), and muscle damage (creatine kinase). MVIC (P < 0.05) did not decline in the MC group (vs. PLA) across the 72-h post-trial period and economy (P < 0.05) was improved in the MC group at 24 h. IL-6 (P < 0.001) and hsCRP (P < 0.05) responses to the trial were attenuated with MC (vs. PLA). No other blood markers were significantly different between MC and PLA groups. The results of the study suggest that Montmorency cherry concentrate can be an efficacious functional food for accelerating recovery and reducing exercise-induced inflammation following strenuous cycling exercise.

Concepts: Inflammation, C-reactive protein, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Cherry, Bodybuilding, Cherries, Montmorency cherry, Sour cherry

1

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Montmorency tart cherry juice (MC) on nitric oxide (NO) biomarkers, vascular function and exercise performance. In a randomized, double blind, placebo (PLA) - controlled, crossover study, 10 trained cyclists (mean ± SD; V̇O2peak59.0 ± 7.0 ml/kg/min) acutely ingested 30 mL of either MC or PLA following dietary restrictions of polyphenol-rich compounds, and completed 6 min moderate- and severe-intensity cycling bouts 1.5 h post ingestion on two occasions for each experimental condition. The severe-intensity cycling test was continued to exhaustion on one occasion and immediately followed by a 60 s all-out sprint on the other occasion. Blood pressure, pulse wave measures, tissue oxygenation index and plasma nitrite concentration were assessed pre and 1.5 h post ingestion. Time to exhaustion was not different between conditions (P > 0.05), but peak power over the first 20 s (363 ± 42 vs. 330 ± 26 W) and total work completed during the 60 s all-out sprint (21 ± 3 vs. 19 ± 3 kJ) were 10% higher in the MC trial compared to the PLA trial (P < 0.05). Systolic blood pressure was 5 ± 2 mmHg lower 1.5 h post MC supplementation compared to PLA supplementation (P < 0.05). There were no differences in pulse wave measures, plasma nitrite concentration or tissue oxygenation between the MC and PLA trials (P > 0.05). These results suggest that acute supplementation with MC can lower blood pressure and improve some aspects of exercise performance, specifically end-sprint performance, in trained cyclists. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Blood, Blood pressure, Artery, Pulse, Prunus, Cherry, Copyright, Montmorency cherry

1

Cerebral blood volume and metabolism of oxygen decline as part of human ageing, and this has been previously shown to be related to cognitive decline. There is some evidence to suggest that polyphenol-rich foods can play an important role in delaying the onset or halting the progression of age-related health disorders such as CVD and Alzheimer’s disease and to improve cognitive function. In the present study, an acute, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over, randomised Latin-square design study with a washout period of at least 14 d was conducted on twenty-seven, middle-aged (defined as 45-60 years) volunteers. Participants received either a 60 ml dose of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC), which contained 68·0 (sd 0·26) mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/l, 160·75 (sd 0·55) mean gallic acid equivalent/l and 0·59 (sd 0·02) mean Trolox equivalent/l, respectively, or a placebo. Cerebrovascular responses, cognitive performance and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and 1, 2, 3 and 5 h following consumption. There were significant differences in concentrations of total Hb and oxygenated Hb during the task period 1 h after MC consumption (P≤0·05). Furthermore, MC consumption significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (P≤0·05) over a period of 3 h, with peak reductions of 6±2 mmHg at 1 h after MC consumption relative to the placebo. Cognitive function and mood were not affected. These results show that a single dose of MC concentrate can modulate certain variables of vascular function; however, this does not translate to improvements in cognition or mood.

Concepts: Better, Blood, Blood pressure, Cognition, Prunus, Cherry, Cherries, Montmorency cherry

0

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of sour chgahtvy (Prunus cerasus L.) “Montmorency” and sweet cherry rootstocks “Gisela 6” and “Gisela 7” (P. cerasus × P. canescens) is described. Briefly, leaf explants from in vitro shoots are cocultivated with A. tumefaciens either directly (for “Gisela 6” and “Gisela 7”) or after pretreatment (for “Montmorency”) on cocultivation medium; selection and regeneration of transformed shoots are carried out on selection medium containing 50 mg/L kanamycin (Km) and 250 mg/L timentin (or cefotaxime) for 3-5 months. In this protocol, the optimal media for shoot proliferation and shoot regeneration from leaf explants are genotype dependent.

Concepts: Agrobacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Prunus, Bacterial conjugation, Cherry, Cherries, Montmorency cherry, Sour cherry