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Concept: Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale


BACKGROUND: The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) is commonly used as a screening instrument, as a continuous measure of change in depressive symptoms over time, and as a means to compare the relative efficacy of treatments. Among several abridged versions, the 6-item HAM-D6 is used most widely in large degree because of its good psychometric properties. The current study compares both self-report and clinician-rated versions of the Hebrew version of this scale. METHODS: A total of 153 Israelis 75 years of age on average participated in this study. The HAM-D6 was examined using confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models separately for both patient and clinician responses. RESULTS: Reponses to the HAM-D6 suggest that this instrument measures a unidimensional construct with each of the scales' six items contributing significantly to the measurement. Comparisons between self-report and clinician versions indicate that responses do not significantly differ for 4 of the 6 items. Moreover, 100% sensitivity (and 91% specificity) was found between patient HAM-D6 responses and clinician diagnoses of depression. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the Hebrew HAM-D6 can be used to measure and screen for depressive symptoms among elderly patients.

Concepts: Hospital, Measurement, Type I and type II errors, Psychometrics, Major depressive disorder, Measuring instrument, Likert scale, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale


INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to compare screening properties of four assessment scales for poststroke depression (PSD) at 2 weeks and 1 year after index stroke, and investigated factors contributing to misclassification. METHODS: A total of 423 patients were evaluated 2 weeks after stroke and 288 (68%) were followed 1 year later, and were diagnosed as having major and minor PSD applying DSM-IV criteria gold standards. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-depression subscale (HADS-D), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) were administered. The balance of sensitivity and specificity was assessed using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: Discriminating abilities of all the scales for major and all PSD were good (area under ROC values 0.88-0.93 and 0.88-0.92 at 2 weeks; and 0.93-0.96 and 0.89-0.91 at 1 year, respectively). Misclassification was influenced by demographic characteristics and stroke severity particularly for the BDI and HAMD, was more marked for all PSD than for major PSD, and was more prominent at 2 weeks than at 1 year after stroke. LIMITATIONS: Patients with only mild to moderate stroke severity were included. CONCLUSIONS: Although there were no marked differences in the screening abilities for PSD between the scales, differences were found in factors influencing misclassification. Assessment scales with less somatic items may be recommended for the screening of PSD, particularly at the acute phase of stroke.

Concepts: Positive predictive value, Type I and type II errors, Sensitivity and specificity, Receiver operating characteristic, Musical scale, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale


BACKGROUND: Both clinical and preclinical studies revealed that regular intake of green tea reduced the prevalence of depressive symptoms, as well as produced antidepressant-like effects in rodents. Evidence proposed that disturbed reward learning has been associated with the development of anhedonia, a core symptom of depression. However, the relationship between green tea and reward learning is poorly investigated. Our goal was to test whether chronic treatment with green tea in healthy subjects affects the process of reward learning and subsequently regulates the depressive symptoms. METHODS: Seventy-four healthy subjects participated in a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study with oral administration of green tea or placebo for 5weeks. We used the monetary incentive delay task to evaluate the reward learning by measurement of the response to reward trial or no-reward trial. We compared the reaction time of reward responsiveness between green tea and placebo treatment. Furthermore, we selected Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) and 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17) to estimate the depressive symptoms in these two groups. RESULTS: The results showed chronic treatment of green tea increased reward learning compared with placebo by decreasing the reaction time in monetary incentive delay task. Moreover, participants treated with green tea showed reduced scores measured in MADRS and HRSD-17 compared with participants treated with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that chronic green tea increased the reward learning and prevented the depressive symptoms. These results also raised the possibility that supplementary administration of green tea might reverse the development of depression through normalization of the reward function.Trial registration: Institutional Review Board of Shandong University (No. 1031).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Disease, Symptoms, Placebo, Tea, Major depressive disorder, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression


Presence of negative mood (depressed mood) and anhedonia (lack of interest and pleasure) are considered core symptoms of depression, while absence of positive mood is not taken into account. It is therefore remarkable that the depression scales routinely used to assess changes during antidepressant treatment (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS], Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS]) do not really take into account anhedonia. Several scales were developed to assess positive mood and hedonic tone, but they only partially cover the multidimensional concept. Therefore we developed a new 16-item questionnaire, the Leuven Affect and Pleasure Scale (LAPS), to assess negative affect, positive affect, and hedonic tone.

Concepts: Symptoms, Fatigue, Bipolar disorder, Major depressive disorder, Emotion, Mood disorder, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression


In a study aimed at identifying the items carrying information regarding the global severity of depression, the 6-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D6) was derived from the original 17-item version of the scale (HAM-D17). Since then, the HAM-D6 has been used in a wide range of clinical studies. We now provide a systematic review of the clinimetric properties of HAM-D6 in comparison with those of HAM-D17 and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Cultural studies, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, Diagnostic classification and rating scales used in psychiatry, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression


Objective Although previous studies have reported the prognostic factors for functional remission, no reports have cited the predictive factors. Our aim was to study the predictive factors for functional remission, which is a treatment goal in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), after receiving biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) treatment for six months. Methods The study consisted of 333 RA patients treated with bDMARDs for six months. The following patient characteristics were investigated: age, gender, disease duration, type of bDMARDs, baseline steroid and methotrexate dosage, and levels of serum rheumatoid factor, matrix metalloprotease, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides antibody, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. In our evaluation, we used the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) for RA disease activity, health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) for activity of daily living, Short Form (SF)-36 for quality of life, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) or Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) to determine the patients' depression status. The subjects were divided into two groups: patients with HAQ-DI≤0.5 and HAQ-DI>0.5 at 6 months. Results A univariate analysis comparing a group of RA patients without functional remission (n=68) showed that the patients with functional remission (n=164) had the following in common compared with those without remission: younger age, shorter disease duration, lower baseline steroid dosage, lower SDAI, lower HAQ-DI, higher SF-36, and lower HAM-D. Only lower HAQ-DI scores and “mental health” score on the SF-36 were detected using a logistic regression analysis. Conclusion These findings suggested that RA patients with lower HAQ-DI and lower depression scores at baseline were more likely to achieve functional remission using bDMARDs treatment than those without these variables.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Logistic regression, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology, Methotrexate, Arthritis, Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale


Theta burst stimulation (TBS) has been proposed as a novel treatment for major depression (MD). However, randomized and sham-controlled trials (RCTs) published to date have yielded heterogeneous clinical results and we have thus carried out the present systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis of RCTs to evaluate this issue. We searched the literature for RCTs on TBS for MD from January 2001 through September 2016 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL. We then performed a random-effects meta-analysis with the main outcome measures including pre-post score changes in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) as well as rates of response, remission and dropout. Data were obtained from 5 RCTs, totalling 221 subjects with MD. The pooled Hedges' g for pre-post change in HAM-D scores was 1.0 (p = 0.003), indicating a significant and large-sized difference in outcome favouring active TBS. Furthermore, active TBS was associated with significantly higher response rates when compared to sham TBS (35.6% vs. 17.5%, respectively; p = 0.005), although the groups did not differ in terms of rates of remission (18.6% vs. 10.7%, respectively; p = 0.1) and dropout (4.2% vs. 7.8%, respectively; p = 0.5). Finally, subgroup analyses indicated that bilateral TBS and unilateral intermittent TBS seem to be the most promising protocols. In conclusion, although TBS is a promising novel therapeutic intervention for MD, future studies should identify more clinically-relevant stimulation parameters as well as neurobiological predictors of treatment outcome, and include larger sample sizes, active comparators and longer follow-up periods.

Concepts: Meta-analysis, Intervention, Major depressive disorder, Rating scale, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, 2016


Little is known about the clinical relevance of the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total scores. It is unclear how total scores translate into clinical severity, or how commonly used measures for response (reduction from baseline of ≥50% in the total score) translate into clinical relevance. Moreover, MADRS based definitions of remission vary.

Concepts: Scores, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale


This study aimed at exploring the psychometric characteristics of the Korean Version of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS) in a clinical sample, and investigating the impact of somatic symptoms on the severity of depression. Participants were 203 consecutive outpatients with current major depressive disorders (MDD) or lifetime diagnosis of MDD. The DSSS was compared with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-items Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). The DSSS showed a two-factor structure that accounted for 56.8% of the variance, as well as excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.95), concurrent validity (r = 0.44-0.82), and temporal stability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.79). The DSSS had a high ability to identify patients in non-remission (area under receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve = 0.887). Maximal discrimination between remission and non-full remission was obtained at a cut-off score of 22 (sensitivity = 82.1%, specificity = 81.4%). The number of somatic symptoms (the range of somatic symptoms) and the scores on the somatic subscale (SS, the severity of somatic symptoms) in non-remission patients were greater than those in remission patients. The number of somatic symptoms (slope = 0.148) and the SS score (slope = 0.472) were confirmed as excellent predictors of the depression severity as indicated by the MADRS scores. The findings indicate that the DSSS is a useful tool for simultaneously, rapidly, and accurately measuring depression and somatic symptoms in clinical practice settings and in consultation fields.

Concepts: Psychometrics, Reliability, Major depressive disorder, Cronbach's alpha, Receiver operating characteristic, Internal consistency, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, Great Depression


Poor sleep and insomnia have been recognized to be strongly correlated with the development of depression. The exploration of the basic mechanism of sleep disturbance could provide the basis for improved understanding and treatment of insomnia and prevention of depression. In this study, 31 subjects with insomnia symptoms as measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and 71 age- and gender-matched subjects without insomnia symptoms were recruited to participate in a clinical trial. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we examined the alterations in spontaneous brain activity between the two groups. Correlations between the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and clinical measurements (e.g., number of insomnia symptoms, insomnia severity, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAMD] scores) were also tested to determine the differences between the two groups. Compared to healthy controls, participants with insomnia symptoms showed a decreased fALFF in the left ventral anterior insula, bilateral posterior insula, left thalamus, and pons but an increased fALFF in the bilateral middle occipital gyrus and right precentral gyrus. More specifically, a significant, negative correlation of fALFF in the left thalamus with early morning awakening scores and HAMD scores in the overall sample was identified. These results suggested that insomnia symptoms are associated with altered spontaneous activity in the brain regions of several important functional networks, including the insular cortex of the salience and thalamus of the hyperarousal network. The altered fALFF in the left thalamus supports the “hyperarousal theory” of insomnia symptoms, which could serve as a biomarker for insomnia.

Concepts: Neuroanatomy, Brain, Human brain, Magnetic resonance imaging, Cerebral cortex, Cerebrum, Insular cortex, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale