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Concept: Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale


BACKGROUND: The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) is commonly used as a screening instrument, as a continuous measure of change in depressive symptoms over time, and as a means to compare the relative efficacy of treatments. Among several abridged versions, the 6-item HAM-D6 is used most widely in large degree because of its good psychometric properties. The current study compares both self-report and clinician-rated versions of the Hebrew version of this scale. METHODS: A total of 153 Israelis 75 years of age on average participated in this study. The HAM-D6 was examined using confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models separately for both patient and clinician responses. RESULTS: Reponses to the HAM-D6 suggest that this instrument measures a unidimensional construct with each of the scales' six items contributing significantly to the measurement. Comparisons between self-report and clinician versions indicate that responses do not significantly differ for 4 of the 6 items. Moreover, 100% sensitivity (and 91% specificity) was found between patient HAM-D6 responses and clinician diagnoses of depression. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the Hebrew HAM-D6 can be used to measure and screen for depressive symptoms among elderly patients.

Concepts: Hospital, Measurement, Type I and type II errors, Psychometrics, Major depressive disorder, Measuring instrument, Likert scale, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale


INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to compare screening properties of four assessment scales for poststroke depression (PSD) at 2 weeks and 1 year after index stroke, and investigated factors contributing to misclassification. METHODS: A total of 423 patients were evaluated 2 weeks after stroke and 288 (68%) were followed 1 year later, and were diagnosed as having major and minor PSD applying DSM-IV criteria gold standards. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-depression subscale (HADS-D), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) were administered. The balance of sensitivity and specificity was assessed using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: Discriminating abilities of all the scales for major and all PSD were good (area under ROC values 0.88-0.93 and 0.88-0.92 at 2 weeks; and 0.93-0.96 and 0.89-0.91 at 1 year, respectively). Misclassification was influenced by demographic characteristics and stroke severity particularly for the BDI and HAMD, was more marked for all PSD than for major PSD, and was more prominent at 2 weeks than at 1 year after stroke. LIMITATIONS: Patients with only mild to moderate stroke severity were included. CONCLUSIONS: Although there were no marked differences in the screening abilities for PSD between the scales, differences were found in factors influencing misclassification. Assessment scales with less somatic items may be recommended for the screening of PSD, particularly at the acute phase of stroke.

Concepts: Positive predictive value, Type I and type II errors, Sensitivity and specificity, Receiver operating characteristic, Musical scale, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale


BACKGROUND: Both clinical and preclinical studies revealed that regular intake of green tea reduced the prevalence of depressive symptoms, as well as produced antidepressant-like effects in rodents. Evidence proposed that disturbed reward learning has been associated with the development of anhedonia, a core symptom of depression. However, the relationship between green tea and reward learning is poorly investigated. Our goal was to test whether chronic treatment with green tea in healthy subjects affects the process of reward learning and subsequently regulates the depressive symptoms. METHODS: Seventy-four healthy subjects participated in a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study with oral administration of green tea or placebo for 5weeks. We used the monetary incentive delay task to evaluate the reward learning by measurement of the response to reward trial or no-reward trial. We compared the reaction time of reward responsiveness between green tea and placebo treatment. Furthermore, we selected Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) and 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17) to estimate the depressive symptoms in these two groups. RESULTS: The results showed chronic treatment of green tea increased reward learning compared with placebo by decreasing the reaction time in monetary incentive delay task. Moreover, participants treated with green tea showed reduced scores measured in MADRS and HRSD-17 compared with participants treated with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that chronic green tea increased the reward learning and prevented the depressive symptoms. These results also raised the possibility that supplementary administration of green tea might reverse the development of depression through normalization of the reward function.Trial registration: Institutional Review Board of Shandong University (No. 1031).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Disease, Symptoms, Placebo, Tea, Major depressive disorder, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression


Although a score of less than 7 for the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) has been widely adopted to define remission of depression, a full recovery from depression is closely related to the patient’s quality of life as well. Accordingly, we re-evaluated this definition of remission using HAM-D17 in comparison with the corresponding score for health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measured by the SF-36.

Concepts: Patient, Life, Quality, Quality of life, Definition, Psychometrics, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale


We examined the association between the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) approach to classifying depressed patients into anxious and nonanxious subgroups and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) anxious distress specifier subtyping. Two hundred two depressed patients were interviewed with semistructured diagnostic interviews. Patients were rated on the 17-item HAMD and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and completed the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale. Both approaches toward identifying anxiety in depressed patients resulted in most of the patients meeting the anxiety subtype. Both subtyping methods were significantly correlated with clinician-rated and self-report measures of anxiety, and scores on the anxiety scales were higher in the patients who met the anxious subtype. However, DSM-5 anxious distress subtyping was only marginally associated with the HAMD anxiety/somatization factor subtyping approach (k = 0.21), and dimensional scores were only moderately correlated (r = 0.50). These findings indicate that the DSM-5 and HAMD approaches toward identifying an anxious subtype of depression are not interchangeable.

Concepts: Psychology, Illness, Abnormal psychology, Bipolar disorder, Major depressive disorder, Psychiatry, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale


The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) are scales used frequently to rate the symptoms of depression. There are many situations in which it is important to know what a given total score or a percent reduction from baseline score of one scale means in relation to the other scale.

Concepts: Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, Diagnostic classification and rating scales used in psychiatry, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression


Presence of negative mood (depressed mood) and anhedonia (lack of interest and pleasure) are considered core symptoms of depression, while absence of positive mood is not taken into account. It is therefore remarkable that the depression scales routinely used to assess changes during antidepressant treatment (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS], Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS]) do not really take into account anhedonia. Several scales were developed to assess positive mood and hedonic tone, but they only partially cover the multidimensional concept. Therefore we developed a new 16-item questionnaire, the Leuven Affect and Pleasure Scale (LAPS), to assess negative affect, positive affect, and hedonic tone.

Concepts: Symptoms, Fatigue, Bipolar disorder, Major depressive disorder, Emotion, Mood disorder, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression


In a study aimed at identifying the items carrying information regarding the global severity of depression, the 6-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D6) was derived from the original 17-item version of the scale (HAM-D17). Since then, the HAM-D6 has been used in a wide range of clinical studies. We now provide a systematic review of the clinimetric properties of HAM-D6 in comparison with those of HAM-D17 and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Cultural studies, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, Diagnostic classification and rating scales used in psychiatry, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression


Objective Although previous studies have reported the prognostic factors for functional remission, no reports have cited the predictive factors. Our aim was to study the predictive factors for functional remission, which is a treatment goal in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), after receiving biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) treatment for six months. Methods The study consisted of 333 RA patients treated with bDMARDs for six months. The following patient characteristics were investigated: age, gender, disease duration, type of bDMARDs, baseline steroid and methotrexate dosage, and levels of serum rheumatoid factor, matrix metalloprotease, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides antibody, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. In our evaluation, we used the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) for RA disease activity, health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) for activity of daily living, Short Form (SF)-36 for quality of life, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) or Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) to determine the patients' depression status. The subjects were divided into two groups: patients with HAQ-DI≤0.5 and HAQ-DI>0.5 at 6 months. Results A univariate analysis comparing a group of RA patients without functional remission (n=68) showed that the patients with functional remission (n=164) had the following in common compared with those without remission: younger age, shorter disease duration, lower baseline steroid dosage, lower SDAI, lower HAQ-DI, higher SF-36, and lower HAM-D. Only lower HAQ-DI scores and “mental health” score on the SF-36 were detected using a logistic regression analysis. Conclusion These findings suggested that RA patients with lower HAQ-DI and lower depression scores at baseline were more likely to achieve functional remission using bDMARDs treatment than those without these variables.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Logistic regression, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology, Methotrexate, Arthritis, Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale


Theta burst stimulation (TBS) has been proposed as a novel treatment for major depression (MD). However, randomized and sham-controlled trials (RCTs) published to date have yielded heterogeneous clinical results and we have thus carried out the present systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis of RCTs to evaluate this issue. We searched the literature for RCTs on TBS for MD from January 2001 through September 2016 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL. We then performed a random-effects meta-analysis with the main outcome measures including pre-post score changes in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) as well as rates of response, remission and dropout. Data were obtained from 5 RCTs, totalling 221 subjects with MD. The pooled Hedges' g for pre-post change in HAM-D scores was 1.0 (p = 0.003), indicating a significant and large-sized difference in outcome favouring active TBS. Furthermore, active TBS was associated with significantly higher response rates when compared to sham TBS (35.6% vs. 17.5%, respectively; p = 0.005), although the groups did not differ in terms of rates of remission (18.6% vs. 10.7%, respectively; p = 0.1) and dropout (4.2% vs. 7.8%, respectively; p = 0.5). Finally, subgroup analyses indicated that bilateral TBS and unilateral intermittent TBS seem to be the most promising protocols. In conclusion, although TBS is a promising novel therapeutic intervention for MD, future studies should identify more clinically-relevant stimulation parameters as well as neurobiological predictors of treatment outcome, and include larger sample sizes, active comparators and longer follow-up periods.

Concepts: Meta-analysis, Intervention, Major depressive disorder, Rating scale, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, 2016