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Concept: Monoid


Integration of local elements into a coherent global form is a fundamental aspect of visual object recognition. How the different hierarchically organized stages of visual analysis develop in order to support object representation in infants remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate structural encoding of natural images in 4- to 6-month-old infants and adults. We used the steady-state visual evoked potential (ssVEP) technique to measure cortical responses specific to the global structure present in object and face images, and assessed whether differential responses were present for these image categories. This study is the first to apply the ssVEP method to high-level vision in infants. Infants and adults responded to the structural relations present in both image categories, and topographies of the responses differed based on image category. However, while adult responses to face and object structure were localized over occipitotemporal scalp areas, only infant face responses were distributed over temporal regions. Therefore, both infants and adults show object category specificity in their neural responses. The topography of the infant response distributions indicates that between 4 and 6 months of age, structure encoding of faces occurs at a higher level of processing than that of objects.

Concepts: Structure, Hierarchy, Ontology, Evoked potential, Group, Organization, Category theory, Monoid


Two groups independently sequenced the Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 genome in 2001. We report here consolidation of these sequences, updated annotation, and additional analysis of the evolutionary history of the linear chromosome, which is apparently limited to the biovar I group of Agrobacterium.

Concepts: Series, Sequence, Agrobacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Monoid


Clinical care alone at the end of life is unlikely to meet all needs. Volunteers are a key resource, acceptable to patients, but there is no evidence on care outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether support from a social action volunteer service is better than usual care at improving quality of life for adults in the last year of life.

Concepts: Life, Sociology, Palliative care, Suffering, Support, Nursing specialties, Monoid, Peace Corps


Human language is composed of sequences of reusable elements. The origins of the sequential structure of language is a hotly debated topic in evolutionary linguistics. In this paper, we show that sets of sequences with language-like statistical properties can emerge from a process of cultural evolution under pressure from chunk-based memory constraints. We employ a novel experimental task that is non-linguistic and non-communicative in nature, in which participants are trained on and later asked to recall a set of sequences one-by-one. Recalled sequences from one participant become training data for the next participant. In this way, we simulate cultural evolution in the laboratory. Our results show a cumulative increase in structure, and by comparing this structure to data from existing linguistic corpora, we demonstrate a close parallel between the sets of sequences that emerge in our experiment and those seen in natural language.

Concepts: Linguistics, Language, Sequence, Anthropology, Set, Tuple, Monoid, August Schleicher


One view of working memory posits that maintaining a series of events requires their sequential and equal mnemonic replay. Another view is that the content of working memory maintenance is prioritized by attention. We decoded the dynamics for retaining a sequence of items using magnetoencephalography, wherein participants encoded sequences of three stimuli depicting a face, a manufactured object, or a natural item and maintained them in working memory for 5000 ms. Memory for sequence position and stimulus details were probed at the end of the maintenance period. Decoding of brain activity revealed that one of the three stimuli dominated maintenance independent of its sequence position or category; and memory was enhanced for the selectively replayed stimulus. Analysis of event-related responses during the encoding of the sequence showed that the selectively replayed stimuli were determined by the degree of attention at encoding. The selectively replayed stimuli had the weakest initial encoding indexed by weaker visual attention signals at encoding. These findings do not rule out sequential mnemonic replay but reveal that attention influences the content of working memory maintenance by prioritizing replay of weakly encoded events. We propose that the prioritization of weakly encoded stimuli protects them from interference during the maintenance period, whereas the more strongly encoded stimuli can be retrieved from long-term memory at the end of the delay period.

Concepts: Series, Attention, Neurology, Sequence, Content format, Weakness, Encoding, Monoid


The process of generating raw genome sequence data continues to become cheaper, faster, and more accurate. However, assembly of such data into high-quality, finished genome sequences remains challenging. Many genome assembly tools are available, but they differ greatly in terms of their performance (speed, scalability, hardware requirements, acceptance of newer read technologies) and in their final output (composition of assembled sequence). More importantly, it remains largely unclear how to best assess the quality of assembled genome sequences. The Assemblathon competitions are intended to assess current state-of-the-art methods in genome assembly.

Concepts: Gene, Evaluation, Vertebrate, Monoid


Investigation of dietary therapy for diabetes has focused on meal size and composition; examination of the effects of meal sequence on postprandial glucose management is limited. The effects of fish or meat before rice on postprandial glucose excursion, gastric emptying and incretin secretions were investigated.

Concepts: Cell, Nutrition, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Helicobacter pylori, Gastric acid, Monoid


The Nipah virus phosphoprotein, P, is multimeric and tethers the viral polymerase to the nucleocapsid. We present the crystal structure of the multimerization domain of Nipah P: a long, parallel, tetrameric, coiled coil with a small, α-helical cap structure. Across the paramyxoviruses, these domains share little sequence identity; yet retain similar length and structural organization, suggesting a common requirement for scaffolding or spatial organization of the functions of P in the virus life cycle.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Life, Structure, Organization, Coil, Gottfried Leibniz, Monoid


The increasing application of next generation sequencing technologies has led to the availability of thousands of reference genomes, often providing multiple genomes for the same or closely related species. The current approach to represent a species or a population with a single reference sequence and a set of variations cannot represent their full diversity and introduces bias towards the chosen reference. There is a need for the representation of multiple sequences in a composite way that is compatible with existing data sources for annotation and suitable for established sequence analysis methods. At the same time, this representation needs to be easily accessible and extendable to account for the constant change of available genomes.

Concepts: Series, Mathematical analysis, Sequence, Set, Real analysis, Limit of a sequence, Monoid


Since the present group had already described the composition of the intestinal microbiota of Brazilian infants under low social economic level, the aim of the present study was to analyze the microbial community structure changes in this group of infants during their early life due to external factors.

Concepts: Present, Bacteria, Microbiology, Water, Sociology, Algebraic structure, Modern history, Monoid