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Concept: Monitor


There is some evidence to suggest that dog ownership may improve physical activity (PA) among older adults, but to date, studies examining this, have either depended on self-report or incomplete datasets due to the type of activity monitor used to record physical activity. Additionally, the effect of dog ownership on sedentary behaviour (SB) has not been explored. The aim of the current study was to address these issues by using activPAL monitors to evaluate the influence of dog ownership on health enhancing PA and SB in a longitudinal study of independently-mobile, community-dwelling older adults.

Concepts: Longitudinal study, Experimental design, Epidemiology, Sociology, Case-control study, Cultural studies, The Current, Monitor


Wrist-worn monitors claim to provide accurate measures of heart rate and energy expenditure. People wishing to lose weight use these devices to monitor energy balance, however the accuracy of these devices to measure such parameters has not been established.

Concepts: Measurement, Mass, Psychometrics, Force, Accuracy and precision, Experimental uncertainty analysis, Balance wheel, Monitor


Mobile text messaging and medication monitors (medication monitor boxes) have the potential to improve adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment and reduce the need for directly observed treatment (DOT), but to our knowledge they have not been properly evaluated in TB patients. We assessed the effectiveness of text messaging and medication monitors to improve medication adherence in TB patients.

Concepts: Tuberculosis, Knowledge, Mobile phone, Text messaging, Instant messaging, Monitor


Abstract Activity monitors are frequently used to assess activity in many settings. But as technology advances, so do the mechanisms used to estimate activity causing a continuous need to validate newly developed monitors. The purpose of this study was to examine the step count validity of the Yamax Digiwalker SW-701 pedometer (YX), Omron HJ-720 T pedometer (OP), Polar Active accelerometer (PAC) and Actigraph gt3x+ accelerometer (AG) under controlled and free-living conditions. Participants completed five stages of treadmill walking (n = 43) and a subset of these completed a 3-day free-living wear period (n = 37). Manually counted (MC) steps provided a criterion measure for treadmill walking, whereas the comparative measure during free-living was the YX. During treadmill walking, the OP was the most accurate monitor across all speeds (±1.1% of MC steps), while the PAC underestimated steps by 6.7-16.0% per stage. During free-living, the OP and AG counted 97.5% and 98.5% of YX steps, respectively. The PAC overestimated steps by 44.0%, or 5,265 steps per day. The Omron pedometer seems to provide the most reliable and valid estimate of steps taken, as it was the best performer under lab-based conditions and provided comparable results to the YX in free-living. Future studies should consider these monitors in additional populations and settings.

Concepts: Validation, Psychometrics, Validity, Count, Walking, Pedometer, Accelerometer, Monitor


Smartphone-based personal carbon monoxide (CO) monitors and associated apps, or “CO Smartphone Systems” (CSSs) for short, could enable smokers to independently monitor their smoking and quitting. This study explored views and preferences regarding CSSs and their use among 16 adult, UK-based smokers. First, semi-structured interviews explored participants' expectations of CSSs. Secondly, a think-aloud study identified participants' reactions to a personal CO monitor and to existing or prototype apps. Framework Analysis identified five themes: (1) General views, needs, and motivation to use CSSs; (2) Views on the personal CO monitor; (3) Practicalities of CSS use; (4) Desired features in associated apps; and (5) Factors affecting preferences for CSSs and their use. Participants had high expectations of CSSs and their potential to increase motivation. Priority app features included: easy CO testing journeys, relevant and motivating feedback, and recording of contextual data. Appearance and usability of the personal CO monitor, and accuracy and relevance of CO testing were considered important for engagement. Participants differed in their motivation to use and preferences for CSSs features and use, which might have non-trivial impact on evaluation efforts. Personal CO monitors and associated apps may be attractive tools for smokers, but making CSSs easy to use and evaluating these among different groups of smokers may be challenging.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Evaluation, Carbon, Carbon monoxide, Motivation, Monitor, Cascading Style Sheets


Community monitoring is believed to be successful only where there is sustained funding, legislation for communities to enforce rules, clear tenure rights, and an enabling environment created by the state. Against this backdrop, we present the case of an autonomous grassroots-monitoring network that took the initiative to protect their forest, in a context, where no external incentives and rule enforcement power were provided. The aim was to analyze the socio-demographic and economic backgrounds, motivations and achievements of forest monitors, compared to non-monitors in the same communities. A total of 137 interviews were conducted in four villages bordering Prey Lang forest in Cambodia. We used binary logit models to identify the factors that influenced the likelihood of being a monitor. Results show that there were few (22%, n = 30) active monitors. Active monitors were intrinsically motivated forest-users, and not specifically associated with a particular gender, ethnicity, or residence-time in that area. The most common interventions were with illegal loggers, and the monitors had a general feeling of success in stopping the illegal activities. Most (73%, n = 22) of them had been threatened by higher authorities and loggers. Our results show that despite the lack of power to enforce rules, absence of external funding and land-ownership rights, and enduring threats of violence and conflicts, autonomous community monitoring may take place when community members are sufficiently motivated by the risk of losing their resources.

Concepts: Logit, Crime, Motivation, Community, Police, Village, Anti-Monitor, Monitor


This paper discusses use of Monte Carlo simulations to facilitate testing and calibration of a gaseous effluent monitor (GEM). MCNP5 was used to simulate responses of the 131I and 41Ar GEM detecting units exposed to specific radioactive sources. The agreement between the MCNP5 predictions and experimental measurements is good enough to validate the MCNP5 model. It has been demonstrated that the Monte Carlo code is a powerful and useful tool to determine accurate detector responses and facilitate the calibration process of this type of the monitors.

Concepts: Simulation, Computer graphics, Monte Carlo, Monte Carlo method, Monte Carlo methods in finance, Computer simulation, Radionuclide, Monitor


Do infants expect individuals to act prosocially toward others in need, at least in some contexts? Very few such expectations have been uncovered to date. In three experiments, we examined whether infants would expect an adult alone in a scene with a crying baby to attempt to comfort the baby. In the first two experiments, 12- and 4-month-olds were tested using the standard violation-of-expectation method. Infants saw videotaped events in which a woman was performing a household chore when a baby nearby began to cry; the woman either comforted (comfort event) or ignored (ignore event) the baby. Infants looked significantly longer at the ignore than at the comfort event, and this effect was eliminated if the baby laughed instead of cried. In the third experiment, 8-month-olds were tested using a novel forced-choice violation-of-expectation method, the infant-triggered-video method. Infants faced two computer monitors and were first shown that touching the monitors triggered events: One monitor presented the comfort event and the other monitor presented the ignore event. Infants then chose which event they wanted to watch again by touching the corresponding monitor. Infants significantly chose the ignore over the comfort event, and this effect was eliminated if the baby laughed. Thus, across ages and methods, infants provided converging evidence that they expected the adult to comfort the crying baby. These results indicate that expectations about individuals' actions toward others in need are already present in the first year of life, and, as such, they constrain theoretical accounts of early prosociality and morality.

Concepts: Infant, Experiment, Computer, Theory, Expected value, Anti-Monitor, Monitor, Crying


Reliability of continuous glucose monitors (CGM) is a prerequisite for therapeutic dosing of insulin without the need for confirmatory blood glucose meter measurements. Interference of CGMs with commonly prescribed substances has not been extensively evaluated.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes, Blood sugar, Hypoglycemia, Blood glucose monitoring, Carbohydrate, Glucose meter, Monitor


The topic of pediatric neurodegenerative disease is broad and ever expanding. Children who suffer from neurodegenerative disease often have concomitant visual dysfunction. Neuro-ophthalmologists may become involved in clinical care to identify corroborating eye findings when a specific condition is suspected, to monitor for disease progression, and in some cases, to assess treatment efficacy. Ophthalmic findings also may be the harbinger of a neurodegenerative process so a keen awareness of the possible manifestations of these conditions is important. The purpose of this review is to highlight common examples of the neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of pediatric neurodegenerative disease using a case-based approach in an effort to provide a framework for approaching these complex patients.

Concepts: Medicine, Instrument approach, Neurodegeneration, Neurodegenerative disorders, Efficacy, Neurodegenerative diseases, Monitor