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Concept: Mold


Over the past 20 years, exposure to mycotoxin producing mold has been recognized as a significant health risk. Scientific literature has demonstrated mycotoxins as possible causes of human disease in water-damaged buildings (WDB). This study was conducted to determine if selected mycotoxins could be identified in human urine from patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Patients (n = 112) with a prior diagnosis of CFS were evaluated for mold exposure and the presence of mycotoxins in their urine. Urine was tested for aflatoxins (AT), ochratoxin A (OTA) and macrocyclic trichothecenes (MT) using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA). Urine specimens from 104 of 112 patients (93%) were positive for at least one mycotoxin (one in the equivocal range). Almost 30% of the cases had more than one mycotoxin present. OTA was the most prevalent mycotoxin detected (83%) with MT as the next most common (44%). Exposure histories indicated current and/or past exposure to WDB in over 90% of cases. Environmental testing was performed in the WDB from a subset of these patients. This testing revealed the presence of potentially mycotoxin producing mold species and mycotoxins in the environment of the WDB. Prior testing in a healthy control population with no history of exposure to a WDB or moldy environment (n = 55) by the same laboratory, utilizing the same methods, revealed no positive cases at the limits of detection.

Concepts: Aflatoxin, Mycotoxin, Aspergillus, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Ochratoxin, Mycotoxins, Stachybotrys, Mold


Semi-synthetic derivatives of the tricyclic diterpene antibiotic pleuromutilin from the basidiomycete Clitopilus passeckerianus are important in combatting bacterial infections in human and veterinary medicine. These compounds belong to the only new class of antibiotics for human applications, with novel mode of action and lack of cross-resistance, representing a class with great potential. Basidiomycete fungi, being dikaryotic, are not generally amenable to strain improvement. We report identification of the seven-gene pleuromutilin gene cluster and verify that using various targeted approaches aimed at increasing antibiotic production in C. passeckerianus, no improvement in yield was achieved. The seven-gene pleuromutilin cluster was reconstructed within Aspergillus oryzae giving production of pleuromutilin in an ascomycete, with a significant increase (2106%) in production. This is the first gene cluster from a basidiomycete to be successfully expressed in an ascomycete, and paves the way for the exploitation of a metabolically rich but traditionally overlooked group of fungi.

Concepts: Medicine, Bacteria, Virus, Fungus, Antibiotic, Ascomycota, Aspergillus oryzae, Mold


Red rice is a fermented product of Monascus spp. It is widely consumed by Malaysian Chinese who believe in its pharmacological properties. The traditional method of red rice preparation disregards safety regulation and renders red rice susceptible to fungal infestation and mycotoxin contamination. A preliminary study was undertaken aiming to determine the occurrence of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins contamination on red rice at consumer level in Selangor, Malaysia. Fifty red rice samples were obtained and subjected to fungal isolation, enumeration, and identification. Citrinin, aflatoxin, and ochratoxin-A were quantitated by ELISA based on the presence of predominant causal fungi. Fungal loads of 1.4 × 10(4) to 2.1 × 10(6) CFU/g exceeded Malaysian limits. Monascus spp. as starter fungi were present in 50 samples (100 %), followed by Penicillium chrysogenum (62 %), Aspergillus niger (54 %), and Aspergillus flavus (44 %). Citrinin was present in 100 % samples (0.23-20.65 mg/kg), aflatoxin in 92 % samples (0.61-77.33 μg/kg) and Ochratoxin-A in 100 % samples (0.23-2.48 μg/kg); 100 % citrinin and 76.09 % aflatoxin exceeded Malaysian limits. The presence of mycotoxigenic fungi served as an indicator of mycotoxins contamination and might imply improper production, handling, transportation, and storage of red rice. Further confirmatory analysis (e.g., HPLC) is required to verify the mycotoxins level in red rice samples and to validate the safety status of red rice.

Concepts: Fungus, Aspergillus flavus, Aflatoxin, Mycotoxin, Aspergillus, Ascomycota, Penicillium, Mold


By use of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we show the SU-8 soft lithographic process contaminates PDMS. Residues of the antimony containing photoinitiator are transferred from the master mold to the surface of PDMS, uncontrollably intensifying the surface potential, leading to electroosmotic flow variability in PDMS microfluidic devices.

Concepts: Electron, Spectroscopy, Fluid dynamics, Microfluidics, Lithography, Mold, Auger electron spectroscopy, Electroosmotic flow


Contamination of food industrial environments and recontamination of finished products by Chrysonilia sitophila and Hyphopichia burtonii has long been a serious problem for the bakery industries. As one of the most common ways to slow down or avoid fungal spoilage on bakery products is the use of ethanol, in the present work the effect of this substance has been assessed on growth of two of the most frequently occurring associated moulds, C. sitophila and H. burtonii, by means of tests on both synthetic media and sliced bread. Test on synthetic media: H. burtonii was less markedly affected in lag-phase duration and radial growth rates by the addition of ethanol to DG18 and the reduction of incubation temperature than C. sitophila that failed to grow at the highest concentrations of ethanol tested (2.0% and 4.0% at 15°C; 4.0% at 25°C). Test on sliced bread: ethanol proved to be effective to prevent spoilage by C. sitophila even at the lowest concentration tested (0.8%, wt/wt), while higher concentrations (2.0%, wt/wt) were needed to prevent spoilage by H. burtonii. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Effect, Yeast, Concentration, All rights reserved, Bread, Copyright, Mold, Sliced bread


Treatment of invasive fungal infections often fails due to the limited number of therapeutic options. In this study, we have analyzed the impact of agents activating the High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) pathway on molds that cause infections in humans and livestock. We found that agents like fludioxonil and iprodione, have a clear anti-fungal activity against pathogenic Aspergillus, Lichtheimia, Rhizopus and Scedosporium species. Only A. terreus turned out to be resistant to fludioxonil, even though it is sensitive to iprodione and able to adapt to hyperosmotic conditions. Moreover, the A. terreus tcsC gene can fully complement an A. fumigatus ΔtcsC mutant, thereby also restoring its sensitivity to fludioxonil. The particular phenotype of A. terreus is therefore likely to be independent of its TcsC kinase. In a second part of this study, we further explored the impact of fludioxonil using A. fumigatus as a model organism. When applied in concentrations of 1-2μg/ml, fludioxonil causes an immediate growth arrest and, after longer exposure, a quantitative killing. Hyphae respond to fludioxonil by the formation of new septa and closure of nearly all septal pores. Mitosis occurs in all compartments and is accompanied by a re-localization of the NimA kinase to the cytoplasm. In the swollen compartments, the massive extension of the cell wall triggers a substantial reorganization resulting in an enhanced incorporation of chitin and, most strikingly, a massive loss of galactomannan. Hence, HOG-activating agents have dramatic cell biological consequences and may represent a valuable, future element in the armory that can be used to combat mold infections.

Concepts: Immune system, Gene, Cell, Bacteria, Fungus, Yeast, Aspergillus, Mold


It has recently been demonstrated that patients who develop chronic illness after prior exposure to water damaged buildings (WDB) and mold have the presence of mycotoxins, which can be detected in the urine. We hypothesized that the mold may be harbored internally and continue to release and/or produce mycotoxins which contribute to ongoing chronic illness. The sinuses are the most likely candidate as a site for the internal mold and mycotoxin production. In this paper, we review the literature supporting this concept.

Concepts: Medicine, Medical terms, Fungus, Mycotoxin, Aspergillus, Stachybotrys, Mold


Molds can cause respiratory symptoms and asthma. We sought to use isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to understand changes in cytokine and chemokine levels in response to mold and mycotoxin exposures and to link these levels with respiratory symptoms in humans. We did this by utilizing an ex vivo assay approach to differentiate mold-exposed patients and unexposed controls. While circulating plasma chemokine and cytokine levels from these two groups might be similar, we hypothesized that by challenging their isolated white blood cells with mold or mold extracts, we would see a differential chemokine and cytokine release.

Concepts: Immune system, White blood cell, Blood, Mycotoxin, Hematology, Aspergillus, PBMC, Mold


Fifty-six foods and food ingredients were analyzed for populations of naturally occurring yeasts and molds using Petrifilm rapid yeast and mold (RYM) count plates, Petrifilm yeast and mold (YM) count plates, dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol (DRBC) agar plates, acidified potato dextrose agar (APDA) plates, and dichloran 18% glycerol (DG18) agar plates. Colonies were counted after incubating plates for 48, 72, and 120 h at 25°C. Of 56 foods in which either yeasts or molds were detected on at least one medium incubated for 120 h, neither yeasts nor molds were detected in 55.4, 73.2, 21.4, 19.6, and 71.4% of foods plated on the five respective media and incubated for 48 h; 10.7, 14.3, 3.6, 1.8, and 19.6% of foods were negative after 72 h, and 3.6, 1.8, 0, 0, and 0% of foods were negative after 120 h. Considering all enumeration media, correlation coefficients were 0.03 to 0.97 at 48 h of incubation; these values increased to 0.75 to 0.99 at 120 h. Coefficients of variation for total yeasts and molds were as high as 30.0, 30.8, and 27.2% at 48, 72, and 120 h, respectively. The general order of performance was DRBC = APDA > RYM Petrifilm > YM Petrifilm ≥ DG18 when plates were incubated for 48 h, DRBC > APDA > RYM Petrifilm > YM Petrifilm ≥ DG18 when plates were incubated for 72 h, and DRBC > APDA > RYM Petrifilm > YM Petrifilm > DG18 when plates were incubated for 120 h. Differences in performance among media are attributed to the diversity of yeasts and molds likely to be present in test foods and differences in nutrient, pH, and water activity requirements for resuscitation of stressed cells and colony development.

Concepts: Ethanol, Yeast, Harshad number, Ascomycota, Bread, Cheese, Growth medium, Mold


Studies from different geographical regions have assessed the relations between indoor dampness and mold problems and the risk of asthma, but the evidence has been inconclusive.

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Meta-analysis, Region, Mold