Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Modality


Up to 30% of adults with acute myeloid leukemia fail to achieve a complete remission after induction chemotherapy - termed primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia. There is no universally agreed definition of primary refractory disease, nor have the optimal treatment modalities been defined. We studied 8907 patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia and examined outcomes in patients with refractory disease defined using differing criteria which have previously been proposed. These included failure to achieve complete remission after one cycle of induction chemotherapy (RES), less than a 50% reduction in blast numbers with >15% residual blasts after one cycle of induction chemotherapy (REF1 ) and failure to achieve complete remission after two courses of induction chemotherapy (REF2). 5 year overall survival was decreased in patients fulfilling any criteria for refractory disease compared with patients achieving a complete remission after one cycle of induction chemotherapy: 9% and 8% in patients with REF1 and REF 2 versus 40% (p <0.0001). Allogeneic stem cell transplantation improved survival in the REF1 (HR 0.58 (0.46-0.74), p=0.00001) and REF2 (HR 0.55 (0.41-0.74), p=0.0001) cohorts. Utilization of REF1 criteria permits the early identification of patients whose outcome after one course of induction chemotherapy is very poor and informs a novel definition of primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that allogeneic stem cell transplantation represents an effective therapeutic modality in selected patients with primary refractory acute myeloid leukaemia.

Concepts: Cancer, Bone marrow, Chemotherapy, Leukemia, Acute myeloid leukemia, Blood disorders, Modality, Acute erythroid leukemia


The present study examined whether 6-month-old infants could transfer amodal information (i.e. independently of sensory modalities) from emotional voices to emotional faces. Thus, sequences of successive emotional stimuli (voice or face from one sensory modality -auditory- to another sensory modality -visual-), corresponding to a cross-modal transfer, were displayed to 24 infants. Each sequence presented an emotional (angry or happy) or neutral voice, uniquely, followed by the simultaneous presentation of two static emotional faces (angry or happy, congruous or incongruous with the emotional voice). Eye movements in response to the visual stimuli were recorded with an eye-tracker. First, results suggested no difference in infants' looking time to happy or angry face after listening to the neutral voice or the angry voice. Nevertheless, after listening to the happy voice, infants looked longer at the incongruent angry face (the mouth area in particular) than the congruent happy face. These results revealed that a cross-modal transfer (from auditory to visual modalities) is possible for 6-month-old infants only after the presentation of a happy voice, suggesting that they recognize this emotion amodally.

Concepts: Auditory system, Visual perception, Visual system, Perception, Sensory system, Logic, Modality, Stimulus modality


Multisensory interactions are the norm in perception, and an abundance of research on the interaction and integration of the senses has demonstrated the importance of combining sensory information from different modalities on our perception of the external world [1-9]. However, although research on mental imagery has revealed a great deal of functional and neuroanatomical overlap between imagery and perception, this line of research has primarily focused on similarities within a particular modality [10-16] and has yet to address whether imagery is capable of leading to multisensory integration. Here, we devised novel versions of classic multisensory paradigms to systematically examine whether imagery is capable of integrating with perceptual stimuli to induce multisensory illusions. We found that imagining an auditory stimulus at the moment two moving objects met promoted an illusory bounce percept, as in the classic cross-bounce illusion; an imagined visual stimulus led to the translocation of sound toward the imagined stimulus, as in the classic ventriloquist illusion; and auditory imagery of speech stimuli led to a promotion of an illusory speech percept in a modified version of the McGurk illusion. Our findings provide support for perceptually based theories of imagery and suggest that neuronal signals produced by imagined stimuli can integrate with signals generated by real stimuli of a different sensory modality to create robust multisensory percepts. These findings advance our understanding of the relationship between imagery and perception and provide new opportunities for investigating how the brain distinguishes between endogenous and exogenous sensory events.

Concepts: Brain, Understanding, Perception, Sensory system, Sense, Mind, Modality, Illusion


Many primary sensory neurons are polymodal, responding to multiple stimulus modalities (chemical, thermal, or mechanical), yet each modality is recognized differently. Although polymodality implies that stimulus encoding occurs in higher centers, such as the spinal cord or brain, recent sensory neuron ablation studies find that behavioral responses to different modalities require distinct subpopulations, suggesting the existence of modality-specific labeled lines at the level of the sensory afferent. Here we provide evidence that neurons expressing TRPM8, a cold- and menthol-gated channel required for normal cold responses in mammals, represents a labeled line solely for cold sensation. We examined the behavioral significance of conditionally ablating TRPM8-expressing neurons in adult mice, finding that, like animals lacking TRPM8 channels (Trpm8(-/-)), animals depleted of TRPM8 neurons (“ablated”) are insensitive to cool to painfully cold temperatures. Ablated animals showed little aversion to noxious cold and did not distinguish between cold and a preferred warm temperature, a phenotype more profound than that of Trpm8(-/-) mice which exhibit only partial cold-avoidance and -preference behaviors. In addition to acute responses, cold pain associated with inflammation and nerve injury was significantly attenuated in ablated and Trpm8(-/-) mice. Moreover, cooling-induced analgesia after nerve injury was abolished in both genotypes. Last, heat, mechanical, and proprioceptive behaviors were normal in ablated mice, demonstrating that TRPM8 neurons are dispensable for other somatosensory modalities. Together, these data show that, although some limited cold sensitivity remains in Trpm8(-/-) mice, TRPM8 neurons are required for the breadth of behavioral responses evoked by cold temperatures.

Concepts: Nervous system, Neuron, Temperature, Sensory system, Proprioception, Cold, Modality, Sensory neuron


SUMMARY Aim : To evaluate the efficacy of do-it-yourself (DIY) whitening as compared to conventional tooth whitening modalities using different shade assessment tools. Methods and Materials : Extracted human molars (120) were randomly distributed to six groups (n=20). Whitening was performed according to manufacturer’s directions for over-the-counter, dentist-dispensed for home use, and in-office whitening. DIY whitening consisted of a strawberry and baking soda mix. Additionally, negative and positive controls were used. Two evaluators used the Vita Classical (VC) and Vita Bleachedguide 3D-Master with interpolated numbers (BGi) for visual assessment at baseline and one-week, one-month, and three-month postwhitening. Instrumental measurements were performed with a spectrophotometer. Kruskal-Wallis procedure was used to assess color changes among groups and intraclass correlation (ICC) to evaluate agreement between evaluators. Results : DIY exhibited lower color change (ΔSGUVC, ΔSGUBGi, ΔE*, where SGU = shade guide unit and E = overall color change) compared to other whitening groups at all time points (p<0.05). ICC demonstrated very good agreement between evaluators with VC and BGi at each time point. Both shade guides were related with each other and strongly related to instrumental measurements (p<0.05). Conclusions : DIY whitening was the least effective whitening modality. Both VC and BGi are related with each other and have good correlation with instrumental measurements.

Concepts: Assessment, Psychometrics, In vitro fertilisation, In vitro, Modality, Do it yourself, DIY


Limited evidence is available about the effectiveness of virtual reality using low cost commercial consoles for children with developmental delay.

Concepts: Virtual reality, Modality, Video game console, Xbox 360


While the importance of oxygen to the wound healing process is well accepted, research and technological advances continue in this field and efforts are ongoing to further utilize oxygen as a therapeutic modality. In this paper, the authors briefly review the role of oxygen in wound healing and discuss the distinct mechanism of action as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the three major oxygen-based therapies currently in clinical use (Hyperbaric Oxygen and Topical Oxygen and Continuous Diffusion of Oxygen), as well as review the existing literature regarding these distinct therapeutic modalities.

Concepts: Oxygen, Scar, Wound healing, Healing, Diving medicine, Hyperbaric medicine, Modality, Oxygen toxicity


Abstract Objective: There are controversies in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of sertaconazole 2 % cream vs. ketoconazole 2% cream in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Methods: 132 patients, with diagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis were studied. The first group received sertaconazole 2% cream (group A), and the other received ketoconazole 2% cream (group B) . At the beginning of referring and also 2 and 4 weeks after first visit, the patients were examined by a dermatologist to control improvement of clinical symptoms and drug side effects. Results: The mean age of sertaconazole and ketoconazole group was 30.18 ± 12.36 and 34.68 ± 10.16, respectively. Patients with moderate SI had the most frequency (76.6%) at pretreatment stag with ketoconazole 2% cream. This is while patients with mild SI had the highest frequency (53.3%) at post-treatment stage. In patients received the sertaconazole 2 % cream, the highest frequency was observed in 80% of cases with moderate SI at pretreatment stage while patients with slight SI had the highest frequency (83.3%) at post-treatment stage. Conclusion: Sertaconazole 2 % cream may be an excellent alternative therapeutic modality for treating seborrheic dermatitis.

Concepts: Medicine, Comparison, Comparisons, Antifungal drug, Group B, Modality, Ketoconazole, Seborrhoeic dermatitis


Multimodal nanoprobes that integrate different imaging modalities in one nano-system could offer synergistic effect over any modality alone to satisfy the higher requirements on the efficiency and accuracy for clinical diagnosis and medical research. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), particularly lanthanide (Ln)-based NPs have been regarded as an ideal building block for constructing multimodal bioprobes due to their fascinating properties. In this review, we first summarize recent advances in the optimizations of existing UCNPs. In particular, we highlight the applications of Ln-based UCNPs for multimodal cancer imaging in vitro and in vivo. The explorations of UCNPs-based multimodal nanoprobes for targeting diagnosis and imaging-guided therapeutics are also presented. Finally, the challenges and perspectives of Ln-based UCNPs in this rapid growing field are discussed.

Concepts: Medicine, In vivo, In vitro, Metaphysics, The Higher, Modality


Hashing has attracted a great deal of research in recent years due to its effectiveness for the retrieval and indexing of large-scale high-dimensional multimedia data. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking-based hashing framework that maps data from different modalities into a common Hamming space where the cross-modal similarity can be measured using Hamming distance. Unlike existing cross-modal hashing algorithms where the learned hash functions are binary space partitioning functions, such as the sign and threshold function, the proposed hashing scheme takes advantage of a new class of hash functions closely related to rank correlation measures which are known to be scale-invariant, numerically stable, and highly nonlinear. Specifically, we jointly learn two groups of linear subspaces, one for each modality, so that features' ranking orders in different linear subspaces maximally preserve the cross-modal similarities. We show that the ranking-based hash function has a natural probabilistic approximation which transforms the original highly discontinuous optimization problem into one that can be efficiently solved using simple gradient descent algorithms. The proposed hashing framework is also flexible in the sense that the optimization procedures are not tied up to any specific form of loss function, which is typical for existing cross-modal hashing methods, but rather we can flexibly accommodate different loss functions with minimal changes to the learning steps. We demonstrate through extensive experiments on four widely-used real-world multimodal datasets that the proposed cross-modal hashing method can achieve competitive performance against several state-of-the-arts with only moderate training and testing time.

Concepts: Optimization, Numerical analysis, Gradient descent, Modality, Loss function, Hash function, Cryptographic hash function, Linear subspace