SciCombinator

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Concept: Mix

156

Mixing alcohol with energy drinks is associated with heavier drinking and related problems among college students. However, little is known about how high school drinkers who mix alcohol with energy drinks (AmED) compare to those who do not (AwoED). This study compares high school AmED and AwoED users on their alcohol use during middle and high school, as well as key domains of functioning in high school.

Concepts: Middle school, High school, College, Secondary school, Drink, Drinking, Mix

28

Electrochromic polymers (ECPs) have been shown to be synthetically tunable, producing a full palette of vibrantly colored to highly transmissive polymers. The development of these colored-to-transmissive ECPs employed synthetic design strategies for broad color targeting; however, due to the subtleties of color perception and the intricacies of polymer structure and color relationships, fine color control is difficult. In contrast, color mixing is a well-established practice in the printing industry. We have identified three colored-to-transmissive switching electrochromic polymers, referred to as ECP-Cyan (ECP-C), ECP-Magenta (ECP-M), and ECP-Yellow (ECP-Y), which, via the co-processing of multicomponent ECP mixtures, follow the CMY color mixing model. The presented work qualitatively assesses the thin film characteristics of solution co-processed ECP mixtures. To quantitatively determine the predictability of the color properties of ECP mixtures, we estimated mass extinction coefficients (εmass) from solution spectra of the CMY ECPs and compared the estimated and experimentally observed color values of blends via a calculated color difference (ΔEab). The values of ΔEab range from 8 to 26 across all mixture compositions, with an average value of 15, representing a reasonable degree of agreement between predicted and observed color values. We demonstrate here the ability to co-process ECP mixtures into vibrantly colored, visually continuous films and the ability to estimate the color properties produced in these mixed ECP films.

Concepts: Polymer, Color, Printing, Primary color, RGB color model, Color space, Color theory, Mix

28

When organic matter is mixed on a nanometer scale with clay minerals, the individual D/H ratios of the two H-bearing phases cannot be directly measured even with the nominal spatial resolution of nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS, 50-100 nm). To overcome this limitation, a new analytical protocol is proposed based on the deconvolution of the D(-)/H(-) and (16)OD(-)/(16)OH(-) ionic ratios measured by NanoSIMS. Indeed, since the yields of H(-) and (16)OH(-) are different for organics and clays, it should be theoretically possible to determine the mixing ratio of these two components in the area analyzed by the ion probe. Using organics with different D/H ratios, the interdependence of the D(-)/H(-) and (16)OD(-)/(16)OH(-) ionic ratios was determined in pure samples. Then using the H(-) and (16)OH(-) yields and the isotopic ratios measured on pure organic matter and clays, the expected D(-)/H(-) and (16)OD(-)/(16)OH(-) variations as a function of the mixing proportions were determined. These numerical predictions are consistent with measurements on laboratory prepared mixtures of D-rich organic matter and D-poor phyllosilicates, validating both the proposed experimental protocol and its use for meteorites. With an improvement of the precision of the ionic ratios by a factor of 10, it should possible to expend this protocol to samples having natural terrestrial D/H variations. Such an improvement could be attainable with the development of synthetic deuterated reference samples.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Measurement, Chemistry, Analytical chemistry, Isotope, Secondary ion mass spectrometry, Clay, Mix

27

Continuous manufacturing methods offer economic and quality advantages when compared with batch manufacturing methods. In continuous manufacturing, one requires real time assurance of quality of product via the implementation of PAT tools. This study focuses on an in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic method for determining the drug content of powder mixtures and tablets during a continuous tableting process. Tablets consisting of acetaminophen (20-30%), lactose (69.07-78.93%) and magnesium stearate (0.93-1.07%) were prepared in a continuous direct compression line that consisted of two loss-in-weight feeders, one for acetaminophen and one for premixed lactose and magnesium stearate, and a continuous mixer followed by a rotary tablet press. NIR spectroscopy was applied to the continuous mixer and tablet press to perform a 100% product check at full tableting speed. The UV-spectrophotometric method was used as an off-line reference method to determine the acetaminophen content in the samples. The powder mixture and tablet samples were taken during the process for the calibration of continuous mixer and tablet press, respectively. For the continuous mixer, model creation with the PLS method yielded R-Square and RMSEC (root mean square error of calibration) values of 0.975% and 0.56%, respectively. For the tablet press, the corresponding R-Square and RMSEC values were 0.943% and 0.75%, respectively. A test run demonstrated good predictability in the estimation of the API content in the powder mixtures and tablets during the continuous tableting process. For the continuous mixer and tablet press, the RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction) values were 0.96% and 1.37%, respectively. This study demonstrates that an NIR instrument capable of fast spectra acquisition can be a valuable tool for the in-line monitoring of the continuous mixing and tableting processes.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Standard deviation, Root mean square, Mean squared error, Near infrared spectroscopy, Tablet, Tablet press, Mix

26

Mixing of complex fluids at low Reynolds number is fundamental for a broad range of applications, including materials assembly, microfluidics, and biomedical devices. Of these materials, yield stress fluids (and gels) pose the most significant challenges, especially when they must be mixed in low volumes over short timescales. New scaling relationships between mixer dimensions and operating conditions are derived and experimentally verified to create a framework for designing active microfluidic mixers that can efficiently homogenize a wide range of complex fluids. Active mixing printheads are then designed and implemented for multimaterial 3D printing of viscoelastic inks with programmable control of local composition.

Concepts: Fluid dynamics, Fluid mechanics, Viscosity, Elasticity, Reynolds number, Mix, Mixing console, Mixer

25

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of bubbles, degree of mixing, flowability and mechanical strength of powder-liquid reline material by manually and with a rotation-revolution (planetary) mixer, and to determine the usefulness of a rotation-revolution mixer for this application.

Concepts: Engineering, Materials science, Strength of materials, Distribution of wealth, Mix, Mixing console, Mixer

24

This study investigated the influence of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure time (0, 7, 14, and 21days) and concentration in gas mixture on depth of penetration and the surface color of raw and cooked striploin steaks. Seven packaging treatments were evaluated: vacuum, vacuum after 48h of exposure to 0.1%, 0.3% or 0.5% CO (mixed with 30% CO2 and 69.5-69.9% N2), and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) containing the same gas mixtures. CO penetration depth increased as exposure times and CO concentration in gas mixtures increased (p<0.05). However, the carboxymyoglobin that formed did not always turn brown during thermal treatment. In cooked samples treated with 0.3% and 0.5% CO-MAP, a red carboxymyoglobin border was visible at the cross section, whereas other CO packaging treatments had its partial or total browning. To create a red color in raw and avoid a red boarder in cooked beef, up to 0.5% CO in vacuum packages and only 0.1% for MAP can be recommended.

Concepts: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Carbon, Carbon monoxide, Red, Modified atmosphere, Packaging, Mix

24

This paper studies the estimation of Dirichlet process mixtures over discrete incomplete rankings. The generative model for each mixture component is the generalized Mallows (GM) model, an exponential family model for permutations which extends seamlessly to top-t rankings. While the GM is remarkably tractable in comparison with other permutation models, its conjugate prior is not. Our main contribution is to derive the theory and algorithms for sampling from the desired posterior distributions under this DPM. We introduce a family of partially collapsed Gibbs samplers, containing as one extreme point an exact algorithm based on slice-sampling, and at the other a fast approximate sampler with superior mixing that is still very accurate in all but the lowest ranks. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the approximation in reducing mixing time, the benefits of the Dirichlet process approach over alternative clustering techniques, and the applicability of the approach to exploring large real-world ranking datasets.

Concepts: Mixture, Non-parametric statistics, Estimation, Ranking, Bayes' theorem, Mix, Conjugate prior, Exponential family

23

In the field of ionic liquids (ILs) it has long been of fundamental interest to examine the transition from salt-in-solvent behaviour to pure liquid-salt behaviour, in terms of structures and properties. At the same time, a variety of applications have beneficially employed IL-solvent mixtures as media that offer an optimal set of properties. Their properties in many cases can be other than as expected on the basis of simple mixing concepts. Instead, they can reflect the distinct structural and interaction changes that occur as the mixture passes through the various stages from pure coulombic medium, to “plasticised” coulombic medium, into a meso-region where distinct molecular and ionic domains can co-exist. Such domains can persist to quite a high dilution into the salt-in-solvent regime and their presence manifests itself in a number of important synergistic interaction effects in diverse areas such as membrane transport and corrosion protection. Similarly, the use of ionic liquids in synthetic processes where there is a significant volume fraction of molecular species present can produce a variety of distinct and unexpected effects. The range of these salt-solvent mixtures is considerably broader than just those based on ionic liquids, since there is only minor value in the pure salt being a liquid at the outset. In other words, the extensive families of organic and metal salts become candidates for study and use. Our perspective then is of an evolution of ionic liquids into a broader field of fundamental phenomena and applications. This can draw on an even larger family of tuneable salts that exhibit an exciting combination of properties when mixed with molecular liquids.

Concepts: Water, Molecule, Interaction, Chemical substance, Mixture, Chemical compound, Salt, Mix

12

BACKGROUND: Limited research suggests that alcohol consumed with an artificially sweetened mixer (e.g., diet soft drink) results in higher breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) compared with the same amount of alcohol consumed with a similar beverage containing sugar. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of this effect in both male and female social drinkers and to determine if there are measureable objective and subjective differences when alcohol is consumed with an artificially sweetened versus sugar-sweetened mixer. METHODS: Participants (n = 16) of equal gender attended 3 sessions where they received 1 of 3 doses (1.97 ml/kg vodka mixed with 3.94 ml/kg Squirt, 1.97 ml/kg vodka mixed with 3.94 ml/kg diet Squirt, and a placebo beverage) in random order. BrACs were recorded, as were self-reported ratings of subjective intoxication, fatigue, impairment, and willingness to drive. Objective performance was assessed using a cued go/no-go reaction time task. RESULTS: BrACs were significantly higher in the alcohol + diet beverage condition compared with the alcohol + regular beverage condition. The mean peak BrAC was 0.091 g/210 l in the alcohol + diet condition compared with 0.077 g/210 l in the alcohol + regular condition. Cued go/no-go task performance indicated the greatest impairment for the alcohol + diet beverage condition. Subjective measures indicated that participants appeared unaware of any differences in the 2 alcohol conditions, given that no significant differences in subjective ratings were observed for the 2 alcohol conditions. No gender differences were observed for BrACs, and objective and subjective measures. CONCLUSIONS: Mixing alcohol with a diet soft drink resulted in elevated BrACs, as compared with the same amount of alcohol mixed with a sugar-sweetened beverage. Individuals were unaware of these differences, a factor that may increase the safety risks associated with drinking alcohol.

Concepts: Male, Gender, Alcoholic beverage, Drink, Soft drink, Drinking, Mix, Sugar substitute