SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Miss

103

During 2014-2016, children aged 6-17 years whose parent or guardian indicated the child had serious emotional or behavioral difficulties (EBDs) were almost four times as likely to miss >10 days of school because of illness or injury compared with children without serious EBDs (13.4% compared with 3.5%). Among children with serious EBDs, those aged 6-10 years were less likely (8.0%) to miss >10 days of school compared with children aged 11-14 years (15.6%) and children aged 15-17 years (19.5%). Among children without serious EBDs those aged 15-17 years (4.7%) were more likely to miss >10 school days compared with children aged 6-10 years (3.0%) and children aged 11-14 years (3.3%).

Concepts: Age, Child, Childhood, Ageing, The Child, Miss

71

Researchers have shown that people often miss the occurrence of an unexpected yet salient event if they are engaged in a different task, a phenomenon known as inattentional blindness. However, demonstrations of inattentional blindness have typically involved naive observers engaged in an unfamiliar task. What about expert searchers who have spent years honing their ability to detect small abnormalities in specific types of images? We asked 24 radiologists to perform a familiar lung-nodule detection task. A gorilla, 48 times the size of the average nodule, was inserted in the last case that was presented. Eighty-three percent of the radiologists did not see the gorilla. Eye tracking revealed that the majority of those who missed the gorilla looked directly at its location. Thus, even expert searchers, operating in their domain of expertise, are vulnerable to inattentional blindness.

Concepts: Observation, Expert, Blindness, Expert witness, Miss

0

Breathlessness ‘crises’ in people with chronic respiratory conditions are a common precipitant for emergency department (ED) presentations, many of which might be avoided through improved self-management and support. This study sought insights from people with experience of ED ‘near misses’ where they considered going to the ED but successfully self-managed instead.

Concepts: Psychology, Pulmonology, Asthma, Educational psychology, Miss

0

Agriculture is among the most hazardous productive sectors, and farm machinery is a major source of injury. In the present study, a mediated model was used to test the role played by workers' characteristics, work environment factors, and near misses in predicting agricultural machinery-related accidents in a sample of Italian users (n = 290). Hours worked per week (via the mediation of an adverse work environment) showed a positive association and years of work experience (via the mediation of risk perception) showed a negative association with the probability of being involved in a near miss, which in turn showed a positive association with the probability of being involved in a machinery-related accident. Implications for tailored preventive interventions are discussed.

Concepts: Present, Agriculture, Risk, Future, Injury, Safety, Accident, Miss

0

 Gastric superficial neoplasia (GSN) is often overlooked at endoscopy because of difficulty in identifying it. The miss rate of GSN at endoscopy and the impact on clinical outcome of the missed GSN have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated these issues.

Concepts: Miss

0

We propose a framework to detect and segment nuclei and segment overlapping cytoplasm in cervical cytology images. This is a challenging task due to folded cervical cells with spurious edges, poor contrast of cytoplasm and presence of neutrophils and artifacts. The algorithm segments nuclei and cell clumps in extended depth of field (EDF) images and uses volume images to segment overlapping cytoplasm. The boundaries are first approximated by a defined similarity metric and are refined in two steps by reducing concavity, iterative smoothing and outliers removal. We evaluated our framework on two public datasets provided in the first and second overlapping cervical cell segmentation challenges (ISBI 2014 and 2015). The results show that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art algorithms on both datasets. The results on the ISBI 2014 dataset show that our method missed less than 5% of cells when the pairwise cell overlapping degree was not higher than 0.3 and it missed only 7% of cells on average in a dataset of 810 synthetic images with 4860 (overlapping) cells. On the same dataset, it outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in nucleus detection with precision 0.961 and recall 0.933. The results on the ISBI 2015 dataset containing real cervical EDF images show that our method misses around 20% of cells in EDF images where a segmentation is considered a miss if it has dice similarity coefficient not greater than 0.7. The 20% miss rate is around half of the miss rate of two other recent methods.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Cell nucleus, Cell, Cytosol, Cytoplasm, Miss

0

Trauma registries are used to evaluate and improve trauma care, yet potentially miss certain trauma deaths and high-risk patients. We estimated the number of missed deaths and high-risk trauma patients using commonly-available sources of trauma data, and bias in quality metrics for field trauma triage.

Concepts: Statistics, Mathematics, Source code, Triage, Miss

0

People often conduct visual searches in which multiple targets are possible (e.g., medical X-rays can contain multiple abnormalities). In this type of search, observers are more likely to miss a second target after having found a first one (a subsequent search miss). Recent evidence has suggested that this effect may be due to a depletion of cognitive resources from tracking the identities and locations of found targets. Given that tracking moving objects is resource-demanding, would finding a moving target further increase the chances of missing a subsequent one? To address this question, we had participants search for one or more targets hidden among distractors. Subsequent search misses were more likely when the targets and distractors moved throughout the display than when they remained stationary. However, when the found targets were highlighted in a unique color, subsequent search misses were no more likely in moving displays. Together, these results suggest that the effect of movement is likely due to the increased cognitive demands of tracking moving targets. Overall, our findings reveal that activities that involve searching for moving targets (e.g., driving) are more susceptible to subsequent search misses than are those that involve searching for stationary targets (e.g., baggage screening).

Concepts: X-ray, Search engine optimization, Suggestion, Target Corporation, Searching, Display device, Miss, The Search

0

Ambulatory care safety is of emerging concern, especially in light of recent studies related to diagnostic errors and health information technology-related safety. Safety reporting systems in outpatient care must address the top safety concerns and be practical and simple to use. A registry that can identify common near misses in ambulatory care can be useful to facilitate safety improvements. We reviewed the literature on medical errors in the ambulatory setting to inform the design of a registry for collecting near miss incidents.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Fiction, Ambulatory care, Pragmatism, Miss, Inform, Miss Universe

0

Multiple-target visual searches, where more than one target can be present within a single search array, are especially error-prone such that a second target is more likely to be missed after a first target has been detected. Increasingly, evidence supports a resource depletion account of these errors-a first target consumes attentional resources leaving fewer available to process a second target. However, “attention” is broadly defined and is composed of many different characteristics, leaving considerable uncertainty about how attention affects second-target detection. The goal of the current study was to identify which attentional characteristics (i.e., selection, limited capacity, modulation, and vigilance) related to second-target misses. The current study compared second-target misses to two other attention-demanding tasks, attentional blink and vigilance, which have established measures that were used to operationally define each of the four attentional characteristics. Second-target misses in the multiple-target search were correlated with (1) a measure of how long it took for the second target to recovery from the blink in an attentional blink task (i.e., modulation), and (2) target sensitivity (d') in the vigilance task (i.e., vigilance). Participants who took longer to recover and who were less vigilant had more second-target misses in the multiple-target search task. Together, these results support a resource depletion account of multiple-target search errors and highlight that worse modulation and poor vigilance reflect a deficit in attentional resources that can account for multiple-target search errors.

Concepts: Attention, Definition, Error, Natural resource, Task, Searching, Visual search, Miss