Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Minimally invasive


BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of rigid pericardial endoscopy as the promising minimally invasive approach to the pericardial space was evaluated. Techniques for cell transplantation, epicardial pacemaker lead implantation, and epicardial ablation were developed. METHODS: Two swine and 5 canines were studied to evaluate the safety and efficacy of rigid pericardial endoscopy. After a double pericardiocentesis, a transurethral rigid endoscope was inserted into the pericardial space. The technique to obtain a clear visual field was examined, and acute complications such as hemodynamic changes and the effects on intra-pericardial pressure were evaluated. Using custom-made needles, pacemaker leads, and forceps, the applications for cell transplantation, epicardial pacemaker lead implantation, and epicardial ablation were also evaluated. RESULTS: The use of air, the detention of a stiff guide wire in the pericardial space, and the stretching of the pericardium with the rigid endoscope were all useful to obtain a clear visual field. A side-lying position also aided observation of the posterior side of the heart. As a cell transplantation methodology, we developed an ultrasonography-guided needle, which allows for the safe visualization of transplantation without major complications. Pacemaker leads were safely and properly implanted, which provides a better outcome for cardiac resynchronizing therapy. Furthermore, the success of clear visualization of the pulmonary veins enabled us to perform epicardial ablation. CONCLUSIONS: Rigid pericardial endoscopy holds promise as a safe method for minimally invasive cell transplantation, epicardial pacemaker lead implantation, and epicardial ablation by allowing clear visualization of the pericardial space.

Concepts: Optical fiber, Effectiveness, Safety, Pericardium, Minimally invasive, Artificial pacemaker, Endoscopy, Heart


The Nuss procedure, which is a minimally invasive approach for treating pectus excavatum, has better functional and cosmetic outcomes than other invasive procedures. Cardiac perforation is the most serious complication and several methods for the prevention of intraoperative events has been developed. Although most cardiac injuries are detected in the operating room, in the case described herein the patient experienced sudden hypovolemic shock during the postoperative recovery period. This indicates that special caution is mandatory even after successful execution of the Nuss procedure.

Concepts: Blood, Chest, Surgery, Sternum, Minimally invasive, Shock, Hypovolemia, Pectus excavatum


Use of robotic systems for minimally invasive surgery has rapidly increased during the last decade. Understanding the causes of adverse events and their impact on patients in robot-assisted surgery will help improve systems and operational practices to avoid incidents in the future.

Concepts: Invasive, Invasiveness of surgical procedures, Minimally invasive, Surgery


Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) carrying tumour-specific sequence alterations may provide a minimally invasive means to dynamically assess tumour burden and response to treatment in cancer patients. Somatic TP53 mutations are a defining feature of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). We tested whether these mutations could be used as personalised markers to monitor tumour burden and early changes as a predictor of response and time to progression (TTP).

Concepts: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, Mutation, Adenocarcinoma, BRCA1, Minimally invasive, BRCA2, Oncology, Cancer


Liver malignancies are a major burden of disease worldwide. The long-term prognosis for patients with unresectable tumors remains poor, despite advances in systemic chemotherapy, targeted agents, and minimally invasive therapies such as ablation, chemoembolization, and radioembolization. Thus, the demand for new and better treatments for malignant liver tumors remains high. Surgical isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) has been shown to be effective in patients with various hepatic malignancies, but is complex, associated with high complication rates and not repeatable. Percutaneous isolated liver perfusion (PHP) is a novel minimally invasive, repeatable, and safer alternative to IHP. PHP is rapidly gaining interest and the number of procedures performed in Europe now exceeds 200. This review discusses the indications, technique and patient management of PHP and provides an overview of the available data.

Concepts: Surgery, Vitamin D, Liver, Minimally invasive, Chemotherapy, Oncology, Medical terms, Cancer


Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

Concepts: Minimally invasive, Brain, Hypodermic needle, Electronic engineering


Surgical innovations disseminate in the absence of coordinated systems to ensure their safe integration into clinical practice, potentially exposing patients to increased risk for medical error.

Concepts: Surgical oncology, Surgery, Hospital, Safety, Medical terms, Minimally invasive, Patient safety, Physician


: To report a case of late failure of a posterior segment placed Ahmed valve in a uveitic eye with a corneal graft and a minimally invasive, ab interno approach in restoring valve function, pressure control, and preservation of vision.

Concepts: Lens, Eye, Minimally invasive


Localised anterior tooth wear can be managed using minimally invasive techniques with conservation of tooth structure and preservation of pulp vitality. This article describes and illustrates with two clinical cases, the management of localised tooth wear, with the restoration of canine guidance by a combination of gold palatal veneers and direct composite restorations.

Concepts: Teeth, Minimally invasive


OBJECTIVE:: Computer 3D navigation (3D NAV) techniques in spinal instrumentation can theoretically improve screw placement accuracy and reduce injury to critical neurovascular structures, especially in complex cases. In this series, we analyze the results of 3D NAV in pedicle screw placement accuracy, screw outer diameter, and case complexity in comparison to screws placed with conventional lateral fluoroscopy. METHODS:: Pedicle screws placed in the cervical, thoracic or lumbar spine using either standard lateral fluoroscopy or 3D NAV employing isocentric fluoroscopy were retrospectively analyzed. The accuracy of each individual screw was graded on a 4-tiered classification system. Screw and pedicle diameter measurements were also made in both cohorts, and case complexity was compared between the two cohorts. Complex cases were defined as deformity surgery, re-do cases and minimally invasive surgery. RESULTS:: A total of 708 screws were placed under 3D NAV guidance and 726 screws were placed without stereotaxy. Eighty-eight percent of 3D NAV-guided pedicle screws were graded non-breach versus 82% of cases with lateral fluoroscopy (P<0.001). The ratio of screw/pedicle diameter was significantly larger in the 3D NAV cohort (0.71 vs. 0.63, P<0.05). 76% of 3D NAV cases had a pre-defined aspect of complexity, whereas 44% of non-3D NAV cases met criteria to be labeled complex (P<0.001). Re-operation occurred less frequently in 3D NAV cases than fluoroscopy-alone. CONCLUSIONS:: The use of 3D NAV was associated with improved screw placement accuracy, improved screw-to-pedicle diameter measurements, and was employed in cases with a higher degree of surgical complexity. We conclude that 3D NAV is a valuable tool in current spinal instrumentation, especially for more complex surgeries.

Concepts: Screws, Invasive, Screw thread, Vertebral column, Minimally invasive, Screw, Surgery