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Concept: Mineral water

28

A panel of reporter gene assays (RGAs) coupled with a single solid phase extraction (SPE) step was developed and used to screen bottled mineral water for the presence of four classes of endocrine disruptors (EDs), oestrogens, androgens, progestagens and glucocorticoids. Fourteen brands of bottled mineral water in triplicate (42 samples) were analysed. Overall, hormonal activity was found in 78% of the samples. Oestrogenic, androgenic, progestagenic and glucocorticoid activity was found in 38%, 38%, 36% and 55% of the samples, respectively at an average concentration of 10 ng/l 17β-estradiol equivalent (EEQ), 26 ng/l testosterone equivalent (TEQ), 123 ng/l progesterone equivalent (PEQ) and 13.5 ng/l hydrocortisone equivalent (HEQ). The level of oestrogenic, androgenic and progestagenic activity observed is not considered a matter of concern for the consumers' health. It is unknown whether the glucocorticoid levels observed are safe. The ED source, long term exposure and mixture effects remain to be investigated.

Concepts: Estrogen, Testosterone, Androgen, Steroid, Bottled water, Endocrine system, Adrenal cortex, Mineral water

7

Non-carbonated natural mineral waters contain microorganisms that regularly grow after bottling despite low concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Yet, the compositions of bottled water microbiota and organic substrates that fuel microbial activity, and how both change after bottling, are still largely unknown.

Concepts: Water, Mineral, Bottled water, Mineral water

6

There has been a plausible link between human exposure to aluminum and Alzheimer’s disease for several decades. We contend that the only direct and ethically acceptable experimental test of the ‘aluminum hypothesis’, which would provide unequivocal data specific to the link, is to test the null hypothesis that a reduction in the body burden of aluminum to its lowest practical limit would have no influence upon the incidence, progression, or severity of Alzheimer’s disease. Herein we are testing the hypothesis that silicon-rich mineral waters can be used as non-invasive methods to reduce the body burden of aluminum in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and a control group consisting of their carers and partners. We have shown that drinking up to 1 L of a silicon-rich mineral water each day for 12 weeks facilitated the removal of aluminum via the urine in both patient and control groups without any concomitant affect upon the urinary excretion of the essential metals, iron and copper. We have provided preliminary evidence that over 12 weeks of silicon-rich mineral water therapy the body burden of aluminum fell in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and, concomitantly, cognitive performance showed clinically relevant improvements in at least 3 out of 15 individuals. This is a first step in a much needed rigorous test of the ‘aluminum hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease’ and a longer term study involving many more individuals is now warranted.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Scientific method, Water, Mineral, Aluminium, Experiment, Null hypothesis, Mineral water

2

Up to now, fecal-oral and oral-oral are the most commonly known routes for transmission of H. pylori, therefore, contaminated water can play an important role in transmission of H. pylori to humans. Genotyping using virulence markers of H. pylori is one of the best approaches to study the correlations between H. pylori isolates from different samples. The present research was carried out to study the vacA, cagA, cagE, oipA, iceA and babA2 genotyping and antimicrobial resistance properties of H. pylori isolated from the bottled mineral water samples of Iran.

Concepts: Bacteria, Water, Gastroenterology, Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter, Urease, Bottled water, Mineral water

2

Sphingomonas koreensis is an aerobic Gram-negative rod originally described in 2001 following isolation from natural mineral water in Korea. Here we report a case study with Sphingomonas koreensis as the causative agent of meningitis. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of Sphingomonas koreensis as a human pathogen.

Concepts: Water, Mineral, Mineral water

1

This study describes the size distribution and concentration of particles expelled by a portable, 3 L ultrasonic humidifier. The ultrasonic humidifier was filled with waters of varying mineral content and hardness. Aerosol size distributions were measured during 8 h of humidifier operation in a typical bedroom. Humidifiers produced approximately 1.22 ×10(10) to 2.50 ×10(10) airborne particles per milliliter of water consumed, resulting in airborne particle concentrations of 3.01 - 5.91×10(4) #/cm(3) , with modes ranging between 109 and 322 nm in diameter. The emission rate of particles varied by water type from 1.02 ×10(9) to 2.27 ×10(9) #/s. Lower mineral waters produced fewer, smaller particles when compared to higher mineral waters. Chemical analyses of particles collected with a cascade impactor indicated that the minerals in emitted particles had the same relative mineral concentrations as the fill water. Our results demonstrate that ultrasonic humidifiers should be considered a source of inhalation exposure to minerals dissolved in water, and that the magnitude of exposure to inhalable particles will vary with water quality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Water, Mineral, Relative humidity, HVAC, Copyright, Mineral water, Humidifier

1

Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

Concepts: Bacteria, Microbiology, Antibiotic resistance, Pathogen, Proteobacteria, Bottled water, Burkholderiales, Mineral water

1

The present placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial aimed to investigate whether a natural mineral water rich in magnesium sulphate and sodium sulphate (Donat Mg) may help to improve bowel function.

Concepts: Water, Randomized controlled trial, Magnesium, Mineral, Sulfur, Mineral water

0

Solec Spa is health resort in south-eastern Poland. Its unique balneorehabilitation significance worldwide is determined by chloride-iodine-sodium water with a high content of hydrogen sulphide. This water, classified as highly mineralized sodium-chloride (seltzer) sulphide, bromide, iodide, boron water, contains naturally approximately 0.9 g/l divalent sulphur compounds, which is the highest concentration noted among the mineral waters of the world. The effectiveness of the Solec waters is proven in: inflammatory and autoimmunological locomotor system diseases, degenerative joint disorders (osteoarthritis), post-traumatic and post-operative orthopedic diseases, skin diseases and allergic disorders. One of the main indications for balneotherapy in Solec Spa and Busko Spa is chronic brucellosis.

Concepts: Medicine, Water, Mineral, Sulfur, Hydrogen sulfide, Pyrite, Sulfide, Mineral water

0

Chronic P. aeruginosa infection is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Current understanding of risk factors for acquisition is limited and so the aim of this study was to examine a large sample of environmental waters from diverse sources. Environmental water samples [n= 7904] from jacuzzis, hydrants, swimming pools, hot tubs, plunge pools, bottled natural mineral water (NMW), taps, springs, ice machines, water coolers, bores and showers were examined for the presence of P. aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa was detected in 524/7904 (6.6%) waters examined. Hot tubs [51/243; 20.9%], tap water [3/40; 8%] and jacuzzis [432/5811; 7.4%] were the most likely environments where P. aeruginosa was isolated. P. aeruginosa was isolated from bottled water [2/67; 3%]. Our study highlights the ubiquitous nature of P. aeruginosa in the environment. Given CF patients are frequently counselled to make lifestyle changes to minimize P. aeruginosa exposure, these results have important implications. In particular, the occurrence of P. aeruginosa in tap water highlights the need to disinfect the CF patients' nebuliser after each use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Environment, Water, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cystic fibrosis, Mineral, Bottled water, Drinking water, Mineral water