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Concept: Military rank


Introduction: Raypex 6 is an electronic apex locator (EAL) that has not yet been tested in vivo. The purpose of this in vivo study was to compare the accuracy of two EALs: the Dentaport ZX and the Raypex 6. Methods: The study involved 36 straight single-rooted teeth. A 10-K file was advanced until the EAL detected the major foramen. The file was fixed in a replaceable pattern of light-cured composite. The apical part of each canal was trimmed to expose the file tip. The distances from the file tips to the major foramen were measured. Results: Wilcoxon’s signed Rank test found no significant differences between the Dentaport ZX and Raypex 6 in terms of their abilities to detect the major foramen (P = .52) The Dentaport ZX was accurate 82.35% of the time to ± 0.5 mm and 97.05% of the time to ± 1 mm, whereas the Raypex 6 was accurate 88.22% of the time to ± 0.5 mm and 100% of the time to ± 1 mm. Conclusions: No statistically significant differences were observed between the performance of the Dentaport ZX and Raypex 6 EALs under the in vivo clinical conditions used in this study.

Concepts: Statistics, Measurement, Statistical significance, In vivo, Psychometrics, Major, Significant figures, Military rank


Computer assistance in synthesis design has existed for over 40 years, yet retrosynthesis planning software has struggled to achieve widespread adoption. One critical challenge in developing high-quality pathway suggestions is that proposed reaction steps often fail when attempted in the laboratory, despite initially seeming viable. The true measure of success for any synthesis program is whether the predicted outcome matches what is observed experimentally. We report a model framework for anticipating reaction outcomes that combines the traditional use of reaction templates with the flexibility in pattern recognition afforded by neural networks. Using 15 000 experimental reaction records from granted United States patents, a model is trained to select the major (recorded) product by ranking a self-generated list of candidates where one candidate is known to be the major product. Candidate reactions are represented using a unique edit-based representation that emphasizes the fundamental transformation from reactants to products, rather than the constituent molecules' overall structures. In a 5-fold cross-validation, the trained model assigns the major product rank 1 in 71.8% of cases, rank ≤3 in 86.7% of cases, and rank ≤5 in 90.8% of cases.

Concepts: Scientific method, Chemical reaction, Organic synthesis, Hypothesis, Machine learning, Artificial neural network, Major, Military rank


Malaria is ranked as the major public health problem in Cameroon, representing 50% of illness in less than five year old children, 40-45% of medical consultation and 40% of the annual home income spent on health. The Cameroon Oil Transportation Company (COTCO) that exploits the Chad-Cameroon pipeline in Cameroon territory, initiated in 2010, a public private partnership project to control malaria along the pipeline corridor. A research component was included in the project so as to guide and evaluate the control measures applied in this pipeline corridor. This study presents the baseline socio-anthropological data as well as the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the local population concerning malaria, its transmission, management and prevention.

Concepts: Health care, Scientific method, Medicine, Public health, Health, Epidemiology, Major, Military rank


There is at present a huge disconnect between levels of funding for basic research on fundamental mechanisms of biological aging and, given demographic projections, the anticipated enormous social and economic impacts of a litany of chronic diseases for which aging is by far the major risk factor: One valuable approach, recently instigated by Felipe Sierra & colleagues at the US National Institute on Aging, is the development of a Geroscience Interest Group among virtually all of the NIH institutes. A complementary approach would be to seek major escalations of private funding. The American Federation for Aging Research, the Paul Glenn Foundation and the Ellison Medical Foundation pioneered efforts by the private sector to provide substantial supplements to public sources of funding. It is time for our community to organize efforts towards the enhancements of such crucial contributions, especially in support of the emerging generation of young investigators, many of whom are leaving our ranks to seek alternative employment. To do so, we must provide potential donors with strong economic, humanitarian and scientific rationales. An initial approach to such efforts is briefly outlined in this manuscript as a basis for wider discussions within our community.

Concepts: Medicine, Death, Senescence, Gerontology, Ageing, Aging, Maximum life span, Military rank


The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an intervention to alter patient unpunctuality. The major hypothesis was that the intervention will change the distribution of patient unpunctuality by decreasing patient tardiness and increasing patient earliness.

Concepts: Military rank


SUMMARY: The prioritization of candidate disease genes is often based on integrated datasets and their network representation with genes as nodes connected by edges for biological relationships. However, the majority of prioritization methods does not allow for a straightforward integration of the user’s own input data. Therefore, we developed the Cytoscape plugin NetworkPrioritizer that particularly supports the integrative network-based prioritization of candidate disease genes or other molecules. Our versatile software tool computes a number of important centrality measures to rank nodes based on their relevance for network connectivity and provides different methods to aggregate and compare rankings. AVAILABILITY: NetworkPrioritizer and the online documentation are freely available at CONTACT:

Concepts: DNA, Species, Computer, Graph theory, Ranking, Software, Centrality, Military rank


The microbiology and epidemiology of UTI pathogens are largely unknown in Botswana, a high prevalence HIV setting. Using laboratory data from the largest referral hospital and a private hospital, we describe the major pathogens causing UTI and their antimicrobial resistance patterns.

Concepts: Kidney, Disease, Infectious disease, Bacteria, Blood, Microbiology, Urinary tract infection, Military rank


  Composites can be classified differently, according to manufacturer information, filler particle size, resin-monomer base, or viscosity, for example. Using clinical trial data, network meta-analyses aim to rank different composite material classes. Dentists then use these ranks to decide whether to use specific materials. Alternatively, annual failure rates (AFRs) of materials can be assessed, not requiring any classification for synthesis. It is unclear whether different classification systems lead to different rankings of the same material (ie, erroneous conclusions). We aimed to evaluate the agreement of material rankings between different classification systems.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Materials science, Composite material, Ranking, Biological classification, Boeing 787, Military rank


To evaluate how the rank probabilities obtained from NMA change with the use of increasingly stringent criteria for the relative effect comparing two treatments that ranks one treatment better than the other.

Concepts: Non-parametric statistics, Ranking, RANK, Military rank


Licorice has been used as an antitussive and expectorant herbal medicine for a long history. This work evaluated the activities of 14 major compounds and crude extracts of licorice, using the classical ammonia-induced cough model and phenol red secretion model in mice. Liquiritin apioside (1), liquiritin (2), and liquiritigenin (3) at 50 mg/kg (i.g.) could significantly decrease cough frequency by 30-78% (p < .01). The antitussive effects could be partially antagonized by the pretreatment of methysergide or glibenclamide, but not naloxone. Moreover, compounds 1-3 showed potent expectorant activities after 3 days treatment (p < .05). The water and ethanol extracts of licorice, which contain abundant 1 and 2, could decrease cough frequency at 200 mg/kg by 25-59% (p < .05), and enhance the phenol red secretion (p < .05), while the ethyl acetate extract showed little effect. These results indicate liquiritin apioside and liquiritin are the major antitussive and expectorant compounds of licorice. Their antitussive effects depend on both peripheral and central mechanisms.

Concepts: Cough, Ethanol, Acetic acid, Phenols, Major, Extract, Tincture, Military rank