SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Microsoft Windows

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We present a model of the dynamical transition of atomic displacements in proteins. Increased mean-square displacement at higher temperatures is caused by the softening of the force constant for atomic/molecular displacements by electrostatic and van der Waals forces from the protein-water thermal bath. Displacement softening passes through a nonergodic dynamical transition when the relaxation time of the force-force correlation function enters, with increasing temperature, the instrumental observation window. Two crossover temperatures are identified. The lower crossover, presently connected to the glass transition, is related to the dynamical unfreezing of rotations of water molecules within nanodomains polarized by charged surface residues of the protein. The higher crossover temperature, usually assigned to the dynamical transition, marks the onset of water translations. All crossovers are ergodicity breaking transitions depending on the corresponding observation windows. Allowing stretched exponential relaxation of the protein-water thermal bath significantly improves the theory-experiment agreement when applied to solid protein samples studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy.

Concepts: Time, Fundamental physics concepts, Atom, Temperature, Heat, Solid, Liquid, Microsoft Windows

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This paper investigates appointment scheduling for an outpatient department in West China Hospital (WCH), one of the largest single point of access hospitals in the world. Our pilot data analysis shows that the appointment system at WCH can be improved through leveraging the scheduling window (i.e., the number of days in advance a patient makes an appointment for future services). To gain full insight into this strategy, our study considers two cases, based on if patients are willing to wait for scheduled appointments or not. We developed a stylized single server queueing model to find optimal scheduling windows. Results show that, when patients are less sensitive to time delay (i.e., patients will wait for scheduled services), levering scheduling windows is not effective to minimize the total cost per day of the appointment system. In contrast, when patients are sensitive to time delay (i.e., patients may find services elsewhere), then our model considers the potential cost of physician idle time. The modeling results indicate that the total cost per day is relatively sensitive to the magnitude of scheduling window. Thus, adopting a proper scheduling window is very important. In addition, our study proves that the cost functions of both cases are quasi-concave, which are also validated by actual data drawn from the Healthcare Information System at WCH. A comparison of numerical results between two cases is made to draw further managerial insights into scheduling policies for WCH. Discussion of our findings and research limitations are also provided.

Concepts: Patient, Hospital, Physician, Doctor-patient relationship, Operations research, Microsoft Windows, Marginal cost, Single

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In vivo optical imaging of neural activity provides important insights into brain functions at the single-cell level. Cranial windows and virally delivered calcium indicators are commonly used for imaging cortical activity through two-photon microscopes in head-fixed animals. Recently, head-mounted one-photon microscopes have been developed for freely behaving animals. However, minimizing tissue damage from the virus injection procedure and maintaining window clarity for imaging can be technically challenging.

Concepts: Nervous system, Neuron, Brain, Optics, Human brain, Microsoft Windows

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Identification of viral integration sites has been important in understanding the pathogenesis and progression of diseases associated with particular viral infections. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled researchers to understand the impact that viral integration has on the host, such as tumorigenesis. Current computational methods to analyze NGS data of virus-host junction sites have been limited in terms of their accessibility to a broad user base. In this study, we developed a software application (named ChimericSeq), that is the first program of its kind to offer a graphical user interface, compatibility with both Windows and Mac operating systems, and optimized for effectively identifying and annotating virus-host chimeric reads within NGS data. In addition, ChimericSeq’s pipeline implements custom filtering to remove artifacts and detect reads with quantitative analytical reporting to provide functional significance to discovered integration sites. The improved accessibility of ChimericSeq through a GUI interface in both Windows and Mac has potential to expand NGS analytical support to a broader spectrum of the scientific community.

Concepts: Scientific method, Identification, User interface, Personal computer, Operating system, Microsoft Windows, Graphical user interface

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For VO2-based thermochromic smart window, high luminous transmittance (Tlum) and solar regulation efficiency (ΔTsol) are usually pursued as the most critical issues, which have been discussed in numerous researches. However, environmental durability, which has rarely been considered, is also so vital for practical application because it determines lifetime and cycle times of smart windows. In this paper, we report novel VO2@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles with ultrahigh durability as well as improved thermochromic performance. The VO2@ZnO nanoparticles-based thermochromic film exhibits a robust durability that the ΔTsol keeps 77% (from 19.1% to 14.7%) after 103 hours in hyperthermal and humid environment, while relevant property of uncoated VO2 nanoparticles-based film badly deteriorates after 30 hours. Meanwhile, compared with the uncoated VO2-based film, the VO2@ZnO-based film demonstrates an 11.0% increase (from 17.2% to 19.1%) in ΔTsol and a 31.1% increase (from 38.9% to 51.0%) in Tlum. Such integrated thermochromic performance expresses good potential for practical application of VO2-based smart windows.

Concepts: High school, Film, Microsoft Windows, Window, Windows, Smart glass

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Correlation filters have been successfully used in visual tracking due to their modeling power and computational efficiency. However, the state-of-the-art correlation filter based (CFB) tracking algorithms tend to quickly discard the previous poses of the target, since they consider only a single filter in their models. On the contrary, our approach is to register multiple CFB trackers for previous poses and exploit the registered knowledge when an appearance change occurs. To this end, we propose a novel tracking algorithm (of complexity O(D)) based on a large ensemble of CFB trackers. The ensemble (of size O(2D)) is organized over a binary tree (depth D), and learns the target appearance subspaces such that each constituent tracker becomes an expert of a certain appearance. During tracking, the proposed algorithm combines only the appearance-aware relevant experts to produce boosted tracking decisions. Additionally, we propose a versatile spatial windowing technique to enhance the individual expert trackers. For this purpose, spatial windows are learned for target objects as well as the correlation filters and then the windowed regions are processed for more robust correlations. In our extensive experiments on benchmark datasets, we achieve a substantial performance increase by using the proposed tracking algorithm together with the spatial windowing.

Concepts: Knowledge, Computational complexity theory, Microsoft Windows

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This paper introduces the NMπ computer program designed for estimation of plant mating system and seed and pollen dispersal kernels. NMπ is a re-implementation of the NM+ program and provides new features such as support for multi-core processors, explicit treatment of dioecy, the possibility of incorporating uniparentally cytoplasmic markers, the possibility of assessing assortative mating due to phenotypic similarity and inference about offspring genealogies. The probability model of parentage (the neighborhood model) accounts for missing data and genotyping errors, which can be estimated along with regular parameters of the mating system. The program has virtually no restrictions with respect to a number of individuals, markers or phenotypic characters. A console version of NMπ can be run under a wide variety of operating systems, including Windows, Linux or Mac OS. For Windows users, a graphical user interface is provided to facilitate operating the software. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Computer, Mac OS X, Personal computer, Operating system, Microsoft, Microsoft Windows, Graphical user interface, Central processing unit

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Significantly increased use of USB devices due to their user-friendliness and large storage capacities poses various threats for many users/companies in terms of data theft that becomes easier due to their efficient mobility. Investigations for such data theft activities would require gathering critical digital information capable of recovering digital forensics artifacts like date, time, and device information. This research gathers three sets of registry and logs data: first, before insertion; second, during insertion; and the third, after removal of a USB device. These sets are analyzed to gather evidentiary information from Registry and Windows Event log that helps in tracking a USB device. This research furthers the prior research on earlier versions of Microsoft Windows and compares it with latest Windows 10 system. Comparison of Windows 8 and Windows 10 does not show much difference except for new subkey under USB Key in registry. However, comparison of Windows 7 with latest version indicates significant variances.

Concepts: Microsoft, Microsoft Windows, Universal Serial Bus, Windows 7, File system, USB flash drive, Windows Vista, Windows NT

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The purpose of the study is to prevent hearing loss when using intratympanic (IT) gentamicin for intractable Meniere’s disease.

Concepts: Hearing impairment, Ear, Tinnitus, Ménière's disease, Microsoft Windows, Gentamicin

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Genome annotation is a primary step in genomic research. To establish a light and portable prokaryotic genome annotation pipeline for use in individual laboratories, we developed a Shiny app package designated as “P-CAPS” (Prokaryotic Contig Annotation Pipeline Server). The package is composed of R and Python scripts that integrate publicly available annotation programs into a server application. P-CAPS is not only a browser-based interactive application but also a distributable Shiny app package that can be installed on any personal computer. The final annotation is provided in various standard formats and is summarized in an R markdown document. Annotation can be visualized and examined with a public genome browser. A benchmark test showed that the annotation quality and completeness of P-CAPS were reliable and compatible with those of currently available public pipelines.

Concepts: Computer, Internet, Personal computer, Web application, Microsoft Windows, Server, Mainframe computer, Hard disk drive