Concept: Micellar electrokinetic chromatography
The physical/chemical stability and potential interactions after diluting two immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), pertuzumab (Perjeta®) and trastuzumab (Herceptin®), in a single intravenous (i.v.) infusion bag containing 0.9% saline (NaCl) solution was evaluated. As commercial products, pertuzumab and trastuzumab are administered through i.v. infusion to patients sequentially, that is, one drug after the other. To increase convenience and minimize the in-clinic time for patients, the compatibility of coadministering pertuzumab (420 and 840 mg) mixed with either 420 or 720 mg trastuzumab, respectively, in a single 250 mL polyolefin or polyvinyl chloride i.v. bag stored for up to 24 h at 5°C or 30°C was determined. The controls (i.e., pertuzumab alone in an i.v. bag, trastuzumab alone in an i.v. bag) and the mAb mixture were assessed using color, appearance, and clarity, concentration, and turbidity by ultraviolet spectroscopy, particulate analysis by light obscuration, size-exclusion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate, analytical ultracentrifugation, and ion-exchange chromatography. Additionally, capillary zone electrophoresis, imaged capillary isoelectric focusing, and potency were utilized to measure the stability of the admixtures containing 1:1 mixtures of pertuzumab/trastuzumab and their respective controls (420 mg pertuzumab alone and 420 mg trastuzumab alone). No observable differences were detected by the above methods in the pertuzumab/trastuzumab mixtures stored up to 24 h at either 5°C or 30°C. The physicochemical methods as listed above were able to detect both molecules as well as the minor variants in the drug mixture, even though some overlap of mAb species were seen in the chromatograms and electropherograms. Furthermore, biophysical analysis also did not show any interactions between the two mAbs or any physical instability under these conditions. Additionally, the drug mixture tested by the pertuzumab-specific inhibition of cell proliferation bioassay showed comparable potency before and after storage. On the basis of these results, pertuzumab and trastuzumab admixture in a single i.v. bag is physically and chemically stable for up to 24 h at 5°C or 30°C and can be used for clinical administration. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci.
A new, sensitive, and robust analytical method based on capillary zone electrophoresis with on-line capillary isotachophoresis sample pretreatment (ITP-CZE) using a column-coupling (CC) arrangement of automated capillary electrophoretic analyzer was developed for determination of bromate in different type of drinking water samples. Both columns were provided with contact-less conductivity detectors and in CZE step UV detection at 200nm wavelength was used. Electroosmotic flow of the buffer solutions was suppressed with the addition of 0.1% or 0.05% (m/v) methylhydroxyethylcellulose into the leading and terminating electrolyte, respectively. Hydrodynamic and electroosmotic flows of the buffer solutions were successfully suppressed and therefore, only the electrophoretic transport of ions was significant. Limit of detection for bromate approaching 0.6μg/L was achieved. Good repeatabilities of migration time (RSD less than 0.3%) and peak area (RSD less than 4.0%) at concentration level 1μg/L were obtained. Robustness of proposed ITP-CZE method and validation parameters were evaluated. Developed automated ITP-CZE method was applied to the determination of bromate in drinking water samples with different content of inorganic macroconstituents without the need of further sample preparation.
INTRODUCTION: Seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L. are used in European phytotherapy to treat inflammatory and vascular problems, and also to help in the regulation of the microcirculation. Thus, the quality control of herbal medicines using this species is important. OBJECTIVE: To develop and to optimise a capillary zone electrophoresis method to determine total β-escin in different extracts of A. hippocastanum L. METHODS: The optimal condition found through chemometric approach was: 25 mmol/L of bicarbonate-carbonate buffer, pH 10.3; +20 kV of voltage; 20°C of cartridge temperature; direct ultraviolet detection at 226 nm; 13 mbar injection for 5 s and analysis time within 6 min. RESULTS: Repeatability, coefficient of variation (CV; %) = 3.19, 3.07 and 1.89 (n = 12), and intermediate precision, CV (%) = 3.05, 3.53 and 2.99 (n = 24) for dry, hydroalcoholic and hydroglycolic extracts, respectively were achieved. The accuracy was evaluated through recovery tests in concentration levels of 100, 150 and 200 g/L, ranging from 98.17 to 104.68%. The proposed method exhibited linearity (r = 0.9983) in the concentration range from 101.4 to 907.2 g/L and limits of detection and quantification equal to 11.63 and 38.76 g/L respectively. CONCLUSION: A fast and reliable methodology for determination of total β-escin was successfully validated and applied on extracts of A. hippocastanum L. demonstrating its usefulness to quality control of medicines containing this plant species. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with electrochemical detection has been used to quantify biogenic amines in freeze-dried Drosophila melanogaster brains. Freeze drying samples offers a way to preserve the biological sample while making dissection of these tiny samples easier and faster. Fly samples were extracted in cold acetone and dried in a rotary evaporator. Extraction and drying times were optimized in order to avoid contamination by red-pigment from the fly eyes and still have intact brain structures. Single freeze-dried fly-brain samples were found to produce representative electropherograms as a single hand-dissected brain sample. Utilizing the faster dissection time that freeze drying affords, the number of brains in a fixed homogenate volume can be increased to concentrate the sample. Thus, concentrated brain samples containing five or fifteen preserved brains were analyzed for their neurotransmitter content, and five analytes; dopamine N-acetyloctopamine, N-acetylserotonin, N-acetyltyramine, N-acetyldopamine were found to correspond well with previously reported values.
An ionic liquid (IL)-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was proposed for the separation and determination of eight phenolic acids. In order to increase separation efficiency and selectivity, the micelle system consisting of aqueous mixtures of ILs, Tween 20 and borate was optimized using a D-optimal design. A 16-run experimental plan was carried out. The results indicated that the addition of ILs in background electrolyte could significantly alter the electrophoretic behavior and improve the resolution of target analytes. By evaluating the electropherograms obtained, a satisfactory separation condition for all analytes was achieved in 10min with optimized buffer composed of 0.70% (w/w) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 8.1% (w/w) polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) and 10mM sodium borate at pH 9.2. Under these conditions, all calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9969), and accuracy (recoveries ranging from 94.71 to 106.85%). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine the phenolic acids in a Chinese medicine compound, compound danshen dripping pills.
Nanoparticle characterization is gaining importance in food technology, biotechnology, medicine, and pharmaceutical industry. An instrument to determine particle electrophoretic mobility (EM) diameters in the single-digit to double-digit nanometer range receiving increased attention is the gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analyzer (GEMMA) separating electrophoretically single charged analytes in the gas-phase at ambient pressure. A fused-silica capillary is used for analyte transfer to the gas-phase by means of a nano electrospray (ES) unit. The potential of this capillary to separate analytes electrophoretically in the liquid phase due to different mobilities is, at measurement conditions recommended by the manufacturer, eliminated due to elevated pressure applied for sample introduction. Measurements are carried out upon constant feeding of analytes to the system. Under these conditions, aggregate formation is observed for samples including high amounts of non-volatile components or complex samples. This makes the EM determination of individual species sometimes difficult, if not impossible. With the current study we demonstrate that liquid phase electrophoretic separation of proteins (as exemplary analytes) occurs in the capillary (capillary zone electrophoresis, CE) of the nano ES unit of the GEMMA. This finding was consecutively applied for on-line desalting allowing EM diameter determination of analytes despite a high salt concentration within samples. The present study is to our knowledge the first report on the use of the GEMMA to determine EM diameters of analytes solubilized in the ES incompatible electrolyte solutions by the intended use of electrophoresis (in the liquid phase) during sample delivery. Results demonstrate the proof of concept of such an approach and additionally illustrate the high potential of a future on-line coupling of a capillary electrophoresis to a GEMMA instrument.
A stacking approach in capillary electrophoresis based on the reversal of the analytes' effective electrophoretic velocities at a dynamic stacking boundary formed between charged micelles (i.e., from long chain ionic surfactants) and neutral cyclodextrins (i.e., native λ-, β-or γ-cyclodextrin) is presented. The approach was demonstrated by the long injection of samples in a micellar solution followed by injection of a cyclodextrin solution zone, and then separation by co-electroosmotic flow capillary zone electrophoresis. The reversal is caused by the formation of stable cyclodextrin-surfactant complexes at the boundary that significantly decreased the retention factor of the analytes in the presence of a micellar pseudostationary phase. The dynamic boundary was formed at the cyclodextrin zone as the micelles penetrated this zone. Under optimum conditions, the boundary disappears and the stacking ends when all the micelles have electrophoretically migrated to the boundary. Cationic and anionic small molecules were enriched using oppositely charged micelles from sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, respectively. There were one to two orders of concentration magnitude improvement in analyte detection, which is expected in stacking with hydrodynamic injection. The improvement in the peak signals (height/corrected area) were up to 236/445 and 101/76 for the cationic and anionic analytes tested, respectively. Linearity (r2) and repeatability (%RSD of migration time, peak height, and corrected peak area) under the chosen stacking conditions (cations/anions) was >0.998/>0.995 and <3.8%/<5.7%, respectively. The stacking approach was also implemented in the direct analysis of peptides from trypsin digested bovine serum albumin.
While capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) provides dramatically improved numbers of peptide identifications compared with reversed-phase chromatography for bottom-up proteomics of mass limited samples, CZE inevitably produces lower numbers of peptide identifications than RPLC for larger samples. One reason for this poorer performance is the dead time between injection of samples and subsequent appearance of the fastest moving component. This dead time is typically 25% of the separation window in CZE, but is only 5% of the separation window in gradient elution RPLC. This dead time can be eliminated in CZE by use of a multisegment injection mode where a series of samples is analyzed by injecting each sample while the preceding sample is still being separated. In this paper, we demonstrate that capillary zone electrophoresis employing sequential injections can produce a doubling in peptide identification rate with no degradation in separation efficiency.
Large-volume Sample Stacking (LVSS) is commonly used as an effective on-line preconcentration method in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). In this paper, the method LVSS combined with CZE has been proposed to analysis the camptothecin alkaloids. Optimum separation can be achieved in conditions as following: pH 9.0, 25 mM borate buffer containing 20 mM Sulfobutylether-β-Cyclod- extrin (SBE-β-CD) and 20 mM ionic liquid [EMIM] [L-Lac] (IL), the applied voltage was 20 kV and the capillary temperature was 25°C. The LVSS was optimized as hydrodynamic injection 4 s at 5.0 psi and the polarity switching time was 0.17 min. Under the above conditions, the analytes could be separated completely in less than 20 min and the detector response had been increased compared with conventional hydrodynamic injection. The limit of detection were between 0.20 and 0.78 μg/L. A good linearity could be obtained with correlation coefficients from 0.9991 to 0.9997. The recoveries ranged from 97.72 to 103.2% and the results demonstrated excellent accuracy. In terms of the migration time and peak area, the experiment was reproducible. And the experimental results indicated that baseline separation can be obtained and this method is suitable for the quantitative determination of camptothecin alkaloids in real samples.
Since its introduction in 1974, the herbicide glyphosate has experienced a tremendous increase in use, with about one million tons used annually today. This review focuses on sensors and electromigration separation techniques as alternatives to chromatographic methods for the analysis of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethyl phosphonic acid. Even with the large number of studies published, glyphosate analysis remains challenging. With its polar and depending on pH even ionic functional groups lacking a chromophore, it is difficult to analyze with chromatographic techniques. Its analysis is mostly achieved after derivatization. Its purification from food and environmental samples inevitably results incoextraction of ionic matrix components, with a further impact on analysis derivatization. Its purification from food and environmental samples inevitably results in coextraction of ionic matrix components, with a further impact on analysis and also derivatization reactions. Its ability to form chelates with metal cations is another obstacle for precise quantification. Lastly, the low limits of detection required by legislation have to be met. These challenges preclude glyphosate from being analyzed together with many other pesticides in common multiresidue (chromatographic) methods. For better monitoring of glyphosate in environmental and food samples, further fast and robust methods are required. In this review, analytical methods are summarized and discussed from the perspective of biosensors and various formats of electromigration separation techniques, including modes such as capillary electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic chromatography, combined with various detection techniques. These methods are critically discussed with regard to matrix tolerance, limits of detection reached, and selectivity.