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Concept: Mexican American

38

To evaluate trends in premature death rates by cause of death, age, race, and urbanization level in the United States.

Concepts: Hawaii, Death, Demography, United States, Race, White American, Mexican American, European American

33

This study was performed to quantify the association between mortality and known and unknown second hand smoke (SHS) exposure as measured by cotinine levels in non-smokers.Data collected from 1999 to 2010 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were linked to the National Death Index. Self-reported non-smokers aged ≥ 20 years (N=20,175) were studied. Serum cotinine was measured at recruitment; non-smokers were those with cotinine below the reported race-specific cut-off points (5.92 ng/mL, 4.85 ng/mL, and 0.84 ng/mL for non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Mexican Americans, and 3.08 ng/mL for all other groups).Serum cotinine levels were significantly associated with overall survival (HRadj 1.17, 95% CI: 1.13-1.22 per natural-log unit change in cotinine), death for all medical causes, lung cancer, all cancers, and heart diseases, after adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), smoking history, and education. Similar results were observed when non-smokers reporting no SHS exposure at home or work were analyzed. There was a statistically significant trend in years of life lost, adjusted for confounders, across cotinine categories both in non-smokers (YLLadj: 5.8, 6.4, 6.9, 7.4; p for trend <0.0001) and non-smokers reporting no SHS exposure (YLL adj: 5.7, 6.2, 6.4, and 6.6; p for trend =0.03).Serum cotinine levels identify SHS-attributable mortality in subjects who would have otherwise been overlooked by questionnaire data, providing further evidence that the economic toll of SHS may be substantially higher than what was reported based on questionnaires.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Tobacco smoking, Passive smoking, Body mass index, Mexican American

28

Although the Latino American male population is increasing, the subgroup Latino men’s health remains underinvestigated. This study examined the overall pattern of Latino male health and health care utilization in major subgroups, using a nationally representative sample (N = 1,127) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. The authors evaluated rates of chronic, behavioral, and mental health service utilization in this first nationally representative survey. The results identified significant cross-subgroup differences in most physical and chronic conditions with Puerto Rican American men having high rates in 8 of 15 physical ailments, including life-altering conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. Despite differences in racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and cultural factors, Cuban American men shared similar rates of heart diseases and cancer with Puerto Rican American men. In addition, Puerto Rican American men had higher rates of substance abuse than other Latinos. For health providers, the authors' findings encourage awareness of subgroup differences regarding overall health issues of Latino American men to provide culturally appropriate care.

Concepts: United States, Demographics of the United States, California, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Massachusetts, Mexican American, Spanish American, Cuban American

26

Ethnic differences in craniofacial dimensions and proportional relationships means that ethnicity-specific data is required for both diagnosis and treatment planning. This investigation establishes normative craniofacial anthropometric values for the Sudanese female (SF) population, compares with North American White (NAW) and African-American females (AA), and analyses the occurrence of neoclassical norms within the study sample.

Concepts: United States, Race, White American, White people, African American, North America, Southern United States, Mexican American

23

To measure specificity as failure rates for non-clinical, bilingual, Mexican Americans on three popular performance validity measures: (a) the language format Reliable Digit Span; (b) visual-perceptual format Test of Memory Malingering; and © visual-perceptual format Dot Counting, using optimal/suboptimal effort cut scores developed for monolingual, English-speakers.

Concepts: United States, Psychometrics, Test method, Reliability, North America, Mexican American, New Mexico, Malingering

18

We examined 22 articles to compare Black Latinos/as' with White Latinos/as' health and highlight findings and limitations in the literature. We searched 1153 abstracts, from the earliest on record to those available in 2016. We organized the articles into domains grounded on a framework that incorporates the effects of race on Latinos/as' health and well-being: health and well-being, immigration, psychosocial factors, and contextual factors. Most studies in this area are limited by self-reported measures of health status, inconsistent use of race and skin color measures, and omission of a wider range of immigration-related and contextual factors. We give recommendations for future research to explain the complexity in the Latino/a population regarding race, and we provide insight into Black Latinos/as experiences. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 13, 2016: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303452).

Concepts: United States, Black people, Demographics of the United States, Human skin color, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Mexican American, White Hispanic and Latino Americans, Spanish American

14

Mexico harbors great cultural and ethnic diversity, yet fine-scale patterns of human genome-wide variation from this region remain largely uncharacterized. We studied genomic variation within Mexico from over 1000 individuals representing 20 indigenous and 11 mestizo populations. We found striking genetic stratification among indigenous populations within Mexico at varying degrees of geographic isolation. Some groups were as differentiated as Europeans are from East Asians. Pre-Columbian genetic substructure is recapitulated in the indigenous ancestry of admixed mestizo individuals across the country. Furthermore, two independently phenotyped cohorts of Mexicans and Mexican Americans showed a significant association between subcontinental ancestry and lung function. Thus, accounting for fine-scale ancestry patterns is critical for medical and population genetic studies within Mexico, in Mexican-descent populations, and likely in many other populations worldwide.

Concepts: Genetics, Biology, United States, Native Americans in the United States, North America, Americas, Mexican American, Indigenous peoples of the Americas

13

In the United States, Latinos have poorer access to and utilization of health care than non-Latino whites. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) may reduce these disparities. The ACA’s impact among Latino subgroups is unknown.

Concepts: Health care, United States, California, White American, Hispanic and Latino Americans, New Jersey, Mexican American, New Mexico

13

Patients are being encouraged to go online to obtain health information and interact with their health care systems. However, a 2014 survey found that less than 60% of American adults aged 65 and older use the Internet, with much lower usage among black and Latino seniors compared with non-Hispanic white seniors, and among older versus younger seniors.

Concepts: Health care, Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, White American, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Health informatics, Mexican American, Race in the United States, White Hispanic and Latino Americans

12

We measured associations between parental incarceration and STI/HIV-related drug use and sex risk, assessing differences by race, age at first parental incarceration, and potential mediators of the relationship.

Concepts: United States, Demographics of the United States, Race, White American, Youth, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Mexican American, Miscegenation