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Concept: Methyl cellulose


The present investigation was carried out to formulate and optimize the bioerodable insert of Azithromycin in order to prolong the release time and improve the ocular availability in ophthalmic infections. A modified solvent casting method was used for the preparation of azithromycin insert in which hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and Eudragit RL100 were used as drug reservoir and rate controlling membrane respectively. Thereafter the, formulations were evaluated for the uniformity of thickness and weight, surface pH, folding endurance, percentage moisture loss, percentage moisture absorption, drug content, in-vitro release, kinetics studies (zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer - Peppas model) and stability studies. The Formulation H8 (amongst the range of H1-H10) ,comprising of 1.5% HPMC and 3% Eudragit RL100 ,was found to be optimized formulation on the basis of uniformity of thickness (0.26 ± 0.004 mm) and weight (24.9 ± 0.27 mg), surface pH (7.1 ± 0.063), folding endurance (18.3 ± 0.81), percentage moisture loss (7.49 ± 0.30%), percentage moisture absorption (5.7%), drug content (1.98 mg ), in-vitro release (99%) , stability studies (Shelf life- 346 days) and better ocular tolerability. The formulation H8 showed a steady and controlled release of the drug over a 12 hour period with non-Fickian diffusion release mechanism, compared to a normal release period of 2-3 hours. The optimized insert showed promising results and can be used to treat a wide range of ocular infections.

Concepts: Pharmaceutical formulation, Hypromellose, Shelf life, Formulation, Control, E number, Methyl cellulose, Cellulose


Laminar extrusion of wet masses was studied as a novel technology for the production of dosage forms for oral drug delivery. Extrusion was carried out with a ram extruder. Formulations contained either microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) or dicalcium phosphate (DCP) as diluent, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), lactose and water. Extrudates were characterized for their tensile strength, Young’s modulus of elasticity, water absorption, gel forming capacity and release of two model drugs, coumarin (COU) and propranolol hydrochloride (PRO). Cohesive extrudates could be produced with both filling materials (MCC and DCP) when HPMC was included as a binder at low amounts (3.3-4.5% w/w dry weight). Employing more HPMC, the elasticity of the wet masses increased which resulted in distinct surface defects. For MCC, the maximum HPMC amount that could be included in the formulations (15% w/w dry weight) did not affect the mechanical properties or decrease the drug release significantly. For DCP extrudates, the maximally effective HPMC amount was 30% (w/w dry weight) with influence on both the mechanical properties and drug release. This study suggests that laminar extrusion of wet masses is a feasible technique for the production of dosage forms for oral drug delivery.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Stiffness, Methyl cellulose, Elasticity, Tensile strength, Young's modulus, Elastic modulus, Cellulose


The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of polymeric microcarriers on the in-vivo intranasal uptake of an anti-migraine drug for brain targeting. Mucoadhesive powder formulations consisted of antimigraine drug, zolmitriptan, and chitosans (various molecular weights and types) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Their suitability for nasal administration was evaluated by in-vitro and ex-vivo mucoadhesion and permeation tests. The formulations based on chitosan glutamate (CG) or HPMC were tested in-vivo because they showed good mucoadhesive properties and altered the permeation rate of the drug. The in-vivo results from intravenous infusion and nasal aqueous suspension of the drug or nasal particulate powders were compared. The plasmatic AUC values obtained within 8 h following intravenous administration appeared about three times higher than those obtained by nasal administration, independent of the formulations. Zolmitriptan concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid obtained from nasal and intravenous administrations were respectively 30 and 90 times lower than the concentrations of the drug in the blood. Thus, nasal administration potentiated the central zolmitriptan activity allowing a reduction of the drug peripheral levels, with respect to the intravenous administration. Among nasally administered formulations, CG microparticles showed the highest efficacy in promoting the central uptake of zolmitriptan within 1 h.

Concepts: Psychoactive drug, Hypromellose, Methyl cellulose, Route of administration, Cerebrospinal fluid, Bolus, Intravenous therapy, Chemistry


Abstract Context: Buspirone HCl has very low oral bioavailability (4%) due to deactivation by extensive first pass effect. It also has very limited transdermal permeation due to its high hydrophilicity. Objective: The aim of this study was to increase the transdermal permeation of buspirone HCl utilizing a stable dosage form. Methods: Transfersomes were prepared using Tween-80 as a flexibility imparting agent to the vesicular walls. Oleic acid and/or ethanol, with different percentages, were utilized as a permeation enhancer. Formulations were characterized by analyzing particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release and ex vivo drug permeation. Factorial design (3(2)) was planned for the optimization of formulations using Design-Expert® software. Lyophilized transfersomal gel of the optimized formulation was prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K100, carboxymethyl cellulose or sodium alginate with or without mannitol as a cryoprotectant. Physical characterization of the transfersomes and the lyophilized gel were carried out using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Results: The optimized formulation (T7), containing 35% oleic acid, had the highest desirability value (0.658) with high ex vivo drug flux (43.40 µg/h/cm(2)) through rat skin when compared with the aqueous drug solution and formula T1 (without oleic acid). The T7 transfersomal gel containing HPMC K100 (G2) had the highest desirability value (0.640) among the lyophilized gel formulations with decreased ex vivo drug flux (38.98 µg/h/cm(2)) in comparison with the original transfersomal formula (T7). Conclusions: Lyophilized transfersomal gel containing oleic acid was considered as a promising transdermal delivery system for hydrophilic drugs.

Concepts: In vivo, In vitro, E number, Pharmacology, Biopharmaceutics Classification System, Excipients, Methyl cellulose, Cellulose


: We report 2 cases of a foreign body reaction to Radiesse, a semipermanent soft-tissue filler consisting of 30% calcium hydroxylapatite microspheres and 70% carboxymethyl cellulose gel carrier. In one case, injection of this filler provoked a nodule on the columella, which was discovered during rhinoplasty. In the second case, the reaction was revealed during histopathologic examination of the deep section of a surgically removed basal-cell carcinoma. Histopathology showed a foreign body reaction with numerous giant cells and histiocytes, some plasma cells, and lymphocytes. Within this inflammatory reaction, a nonpolarizing exogenous material was identified consisting of numerous, round, uniformly sized, yellowish, extracellular deposits with a crackled appearance. Although many authors claim that Radiesse does not induce any foreign body reactions, we found a number of similar histopathologic pictures in studies describing animal or human auricular area test sites or even in reports of lip nodules, which are a well-known adverse effect after injection of this filler into this site. The histopathologic appearance of Radiesse is particularly distinctive and easily recognizable by dermatologists and dermatopathologists.

Concepts: Hydroxylapatite, Case, Foreign body reaction, Anatomical pathology, Methyl cellulose, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Histopathology, Cellulose


This work aims to prepare sustained release buccal mucoadhesive tablets of buspirone hydrochloride (BH) to improve its systemic bioavailability. The tablets were prepared according to 5×3 factorial design where polymer type was set at five levels (carbopol, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and guar gum), and polymer to drug ratio at three levels (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1). Mucoadhesion force, ex-vivo mucoadhesion time, percent BH released after 8h (Q8h) and time for release of 50% BH (T50%) were chosen as dependent variables. Additional BH cup and core buccal tablets were prepared to optimize BH release profile and make it uni-directional along with the tablets mucoadhesion. Tablets were evaluated in terms of content uniformity, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, swelling index, surface pH, mucoadhesion strength and time and in-vitro release. Cup and core formula (CA10) was able to adhere to the buccal mucosa for 8h, showed the highest Q8h (97.91%) and exhibited a zero order drug release profile. Pharmacokinetic study of formula CA10 in human volunteers revealed a 5.6 fold increase in BH bioavailability compared to the oral commercial Buspar(®) tablets. Conducting level A in-vitro/in-vivo correlation showed good correlation (r(2)= 0.9805) between fractions dissolved in-vitro and fractions absorbed in-vivo.

Concepts: Excipients, Pharmacology, Bioavailability, E number, Methyl cellulose, Edible thickening agents, Cellulose, Carboxymethyl cellulose


Three dimensional (3D) printing was used as a novel medicine formulation technique for production of viable tablets capable of satisfying regulatory tests and matching the release of standard commercial tablets. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 2208) (Methocel™ K100M Premium) and poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) (carbopol(®) 974P NF) were used as a hydrophilic matrix for sustained release (SR) layer. Hypromellose(®) (HPMC 2910) was used as a binder while microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) (Pharmacel(®) 102) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) (Primojel(®)) were used as disintegrants for immediate release (IR) layer. Guaifenesin Bi-layer Tablets (GBT) were used as a model drug (Mucinex(®)) for this study. There was a favourable comparison of release of the active guaifenesin from the printed hydrophilic matrix compared with the commercially available GBT. The printed formulations were also evaluated for physical and mechanical properties such as weight variation, friability, hardness and thickness as a comparison to the commercial tablet and were within acceptable range as defined by the international standards stated in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). All formulations (standard tablets and 3D printed tablets) showed n values between 0.27-0.44 which indicates Fickian diffusion drug release through a hydrated HPMC gel layer.

Concepts: Methyl cellulose, Inkjet printer, Pill splitting, Excipient, Tablet, Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical formulation, Cellulose


Several beneficial effects on the skin have been reported for coumestrol (COU), such as protection against photoaging and improvement of skin elasticity and thickness in postmenopausal women. However no reports on the effect of COU on wound healing were found. Nevertheless, COU has low aqueous solubility, which is a crucial limitation for biological tests. The present study was designed as a two-step experiment to evaluate the wound healing effect of COU. First, we used fibroblasts and the experimental in vitro artificial wound model, scratch assay, to compare the effects of COU free, dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM), or associated with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD). The 50 μM (66.1%) and 10 μM (56.3%) COU/HPβCD association induced cell proliferation and migration in inflicted wounds. Subsequently, the in vivo wound healing experimental model (Wistar rats) revealed that COU/HPβCD incorporated into hypromellose (HPMC) hydrogel had similar efficacy in wound healing in comparison to the positive control (Dersani®), with the advantage that 50% wound healing was achieved within a shorter period. In summary, the results successfully demonstrated, for the first time, the wound healing effect of COU/HPβCD incorporated into HPMC hydrogel and describe the feasibility of the biological tests with the use of HPβCD instead DMSO.

Concepts: Dimethyl sulfide, Effectiveness, Healing, In vitro, Methyl cellulose, Hypromellose, In vivo, Wound healing


In line with the increasing demand for sustainable packaging materials, this contribution aimed to investigate the film-forming properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) to correlate its chemical structure with film properties. The roles played by substitution degree (SD) and molecular weight (Mw) on the mechanical and water barrier properties of HPMC films were elucidated. Rheological, thermal, and structural experiments supported such correlations. SD was shown to markedly affect film affinity and barrier to moisture, glass transition, resistance, and extensibility, as hydroxyl substitution lessens the occurrence of polar groups. Mwaffected mostly the rheological and mechanical properties of HPMC-based materials. Methocel®E4 M led to films featuring the greatest tensile strength (ca., 67 MPa), stiffness (ca., 1.8 GPa), and extensibility (ca., 17%) and the lowest permeability to water vapor (ca., 0.9 g mm kPa-1 h-1 m-2). These properties, which arise from its longer and less polar chains, are desirable for food packaging materials.

Concepts: Hypromellose, Methyl cellulose, Sustainable packaging, Packaging and labeling, Water, Chemistry, Molecule, Packaging


This study aimed to develop novel co-processed tablet fillers based on the principle of particle engineering for direct compaction and to compare the characteristics of co-processed products obtained by fluid-bed coating and co-spray drying, respectively. Water-soluble mannitol and water-insoluble calcium carbonate were selected as representative fillers for this study. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), serving as a surface property modifier, was distributed on the surface of primary filler particles via the two co-processing methods. Both fundamental and functional properties of the products were comparatively investigated. The results showed that functional properties of the fillers, like flowability, compactibility, and drug-loading capacity, were effectively improved by both co-processing methods. However, fluid-bed coating showed greater advantages over co-spray drying in some aspects, which was mainly attributed to the remarkable differences in some fundamental properties of co-processed powders, like particle size, surface topology, and particle structure. For example, the more irregular surface and porous structure induced by fluid-bed coating could contribute to better compaction properties and lower lubricant sensitivity due to the increasing contact area and mechanical interlocking between particles under pressure. More effective surface distribution of HPMC during fluid-bed coating was also a contributor. In addition, such a porous agglomerate structure could also reduce the separation of drug and excipients after mixing, resulting in the improvement in drug loading capacity and tablet uniformity. In summary, fluid-bed coating appears to be more promising for co-processing than spray drying in some aspects, and co-processed excipients produced by it have a great prospect for further investigations and development.

Concepts: E number, Pharmacology, Calcium carbonate, Hypromellose, Methyl cellulose, Better, Tablet, Excipients