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Concept: Methyl cellulose


The present investigation was carried out to formulate and optimize the bioerodable insert of Azithromycin in order to prolong the release time and improve the ocular availability in ophthalmic infections. A modified solvent casting method was used for the preparation of azithromycin insert in which hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and Eudragit RL100 were used as drug reservoir and rate controlling membrane respectively. Thereafter the, formulations were evaluated for the uniformity of thickness and weight, surface pH, folding endurance, percentage moisture loss, percentage moisture absorption, drug content, in-vitro release, kinetics studies (zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer - Peppas model) and stability studies. The Formulation H8 (amongst the range of H1-H10) ,comprising of 1.5% HPMC and 3% Eudragit RL100 ,was found to be optimized formulation on the basis of uniformity of thickness (0.26 ± 0.004 mm) and weight (24.9 ± 0.27 mg), surface pH (7.1 ± 0.063), folding endurance (18.3 ± 0.81), percentage moisture loss (7.49 ± 0.30%), percentage moisture absorption (5.7%), drug content (1.98 mg ), in-vitro release (99%) , stability studies (Shelf life- 346 days) and better ocular tolerability. The formulation H8 showed a steady and controlled release of the drug over a 12 hour period with non-Fickian diffusion release mechanism, compared to a normal release period of 2-3 hours. The optimized insert showed promising results and can be used to treat a wide range of ocular infections.

Concepts: Cellulose, E number, Methyl cellulose, Control, Hypromellose, Pharmaceutical formulation, Shelf life, Formulation


The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of polymeric microcarriers on the in-vivo intranasal uptake of an anti-migraine drug for brain targeting. Mucoadhesive powder formulations consisted of antimigraine drug, zolmitriptan, and chitosans (various molecular weights and types) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Their suitability for nasal administration was evaluated by in-vitro and ex-vivo mucoadhesion and permeation tests. The formulations based on chitosan glutamate (CG) or HPMC were tested in-vivo because they showed good mucoadhesive properties and altered the permeation rate of the drug. The in-vivo results from intravenous infusion and nasal aqueous suspension of the drug or nasal particulate powders were compared. The plasmatic AUC values obtained within 8 h following intravenous administration appeared about three times higher than those obtained by nasal administration, independent of the formulations. Zolmitriptan concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid obtained from nasal and intravenous administrations were respectively 30 and 90 times lower than the concentrations of the drug in the blood. Thus, nasal administration potentiated the central zolmitriptan activity allowing a reduction of the drug peripheral levels, with respect to the intravenous administration. Among nasally administered formulations, CG microparticles showed the highest efficacy in promoting the central uptake of zolmitriptan within 1 h.

Concepts: Chemistry, Intravenous therapy, Cerebrospinal fluid, Route of administration, Methyl cellulose, Psychoactive drug, Hypromellose, Bolus


Abstract Context: Buspirone HCl has very low oral bioavailability (4%) due to deactivation by extensive first pass effect. It also has very limited transdermal permeation due to its high hydrophilicity. Objective: The aim of this study was to increase the transdermal permeation of buspirone HCl utilizing a stable dosage form. Methods: Transfersomes were prepared using Tween-80 as a flexibility imparting agent to the vesicular walls. Oleic acid and/or ethanol, with different percentages, were utilized as a permeation enhancer. Formulations were characterized by analyzing particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release and ex vivo drug permeation. Factorial design (3(2)) was planned for the optimization of formulations using Design-Expert® software. Lyophilized transfersomal gel of the optimized formulation was prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K100, carboxymethyl cellulose or sodium alginate with or without mannitol as a cryoprotectant. Physical characterization of the transfersomes and the lyophilized gel were carried out using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Results: The optimized formulation (T7), containing 35% oleic acid, had the highest desirability value (0.658) with high ex vivo drug flux (43.40 µg/h/cm(2)) through rat skin when compared with the aqueous drug solution and formula T1 (without oleic acid). The T7 transfersomal gel containing HPMC K100 (G2) had the highest desirability value (0.640) among the lyophilized gel formulations with decreased ex vivo drug flux (38.98 µg/h/cm(2)) in comparison with the original transfersomal formula (T7). Conclusions: Lyophilized transfersomal gel containing oleic acid was considered as a promising transdermal delivery system for hydrophilic drugs.

Concepts: Pharmacology, In vivo, In vitro, Cellulose, E number, Methyl cellulose, Excipients, Biopharmaceutics Classification System


: We report 2 cases of a foreign body reaction to Radiesse, a semipermanent soft-tissue filler consisting of 30% calcium hydroxylapatite microspheres and 70% carboxymethyl cellulose gel carrier. In one case, injection of this filler provoked a nodule on the columella, which was discovered during rhinoplasty. In the second case, the reaction was revealed during histopathologic examination of the deep section of a surgically removed basal-cell carcinoma. Histopathology showed a foreign body reaction with numerous giant cells and histiocytes, some plasma cells, and lymphocytes. Within this inflammatory reaction, a nonpolarizing exogenous material was identified consisting of numerous, round, uniformly sized, yellowish, extracellular deposits with a crackled appearance. Although many authors claim that Radiesse does not induce any foreign body reactions, we found a number of similar histopathologic pictures in studies describing animal or human auricular area test sites or even in reports of lip nodules, which are a well-known adverse effect after injection of this filler into this site. The histopathologic appearance of Radiesse is particularly distinctive and easily recognizable by dermatologists and dermatopathologists.

Concepts: Anatomical pathology, Histopathology, Cellulose, Case, Methyl cellulose, Hydroxylapatite, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Foreign body reaction


Laminar extrusion of wet masses was studied as a novel technology for the production of dosage forms for oral drug delivery. Extrusion was carried out with a ram extruder. Formulations contained either microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) or dicalcium phosphate (DCP) as diluent, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), lactose and water. Extrudates were characterized for their tensile strength, Young’s modulus of elasticity, water absorption, gel forming capacity and release of two model drugs, coumarin (COU) and propranolol hydrochloride (PRO). Cohesive extrudates could be produced with both filling materials (MCC and DCP) when HPMC was included as a binder at low amounts (3.3-4.5% w/w dry weight). Employing more HPMC, the elasticity of the wet masses increased which resulted in distinct surface defects. For MCC, the maximum HPMC amount that could be included in the formulations (15% w/w dry weight) did not affect the mechanical properties or decrease the drug release significantly. For DCP extrudates, the maximally effective HPMC amount was 30% (w/w dry weight) with influence on both the mechanical properties and drug release. This study suggests that laminar extrusion of wet masses is a feasible technique for the production of dosage forms for oral drug delivery.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Tensile strength, Cellulose, Methyl cellulose, Young's modulus, Elasticity, Elastic modulus, Stiffness


This work aims to prepare sustained release buccal mucoadhesive tablets of buspirone hydrochloride (BH) to improve its systemic bioavailability. The tablets were prepared according to 5×3 factorial design where polymer type was set at five levels (carbopol, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and guar gum), and polymer to drug ratio at three levels (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1). Mucoadhesion force, ex-vivo mucoadhesion time, percent BH released after 8h (Q8h) and time for release of 50% BH (T50%) were chosen as dependent variables. Additional BH cup and core buccal tablets were prepared to optimize BH release profile and make it uni-directional along with the tablets mucoadhesion. Tablets were evaluated in terms of content uniformity, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, swelling index, surface pH, mucoadhesion strength and time and in-vitro release. Cup and core formula (CA10) was able to adhere to the buccal mucosa for 8h, showed the highest Q8h (97.91%) and exhibited a zero order drug release profile. Pharmacokinetic study of formula CA10 in human volunteers revealed a 5.6 fold increase in BH bioavailability compared to the oral commercial Buspar(®) tablets. Conducting level A in-vitro/in-vivo correlation showed good correlation (r(2)= 0.9805) between fractions dissolved in-vitro and fractions absorbed in-vivo.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Cellulose, E number, Methyl cellulose, Excipients, Bioavailability, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Edible thickening agents


The purpose of this work was to evaluate the impact of polymer(s) on the dissolution rate, supersaturation and precipitation of indomethacin amorphous solid dispersions (ASD), and to understand the link between precipitate characteristics and redissolution kinetics. The crystalline and amorphous solubilities of indomethacin were determined in the absence and presence of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and/or Eudragit (®) EPO to establish relevant phase boundaries. At acidic pH, HPMC could maintain supersaturation of the drug by effectively inhibiting solution crystallization while EPO increased both the crystalline and amorphous solubility of the drug, but did not inhibit crystallization. The HPMC dispersion dissolved relatively slowly without undergoing crystallization while the supersaturation generated by rapid dissolution of the EPO ASD was short-lived due to crystallization. The crystals thus generated underwent rapid redissolution upon pH increase, dissolving faster than the reference crystalline material, and at a comparable rate to the amorphous HPMC dispersion. A ternary dispersion containing both EPO and HPMC dissolved rapidly, generating an apparent drug concentration that exceeded the amorphous solubility of indomethacin, leading to the formation of a new nanosized droplet phase. These nanodroplets dissolved virtually immediately when the pH was increased. In conclusion, the concentration-time profiles achieved from indomethacin ASD dissolution are a complex interplay of drug release rate, precipitation kinetics and outcome, and precipitate redissolution rate, whereby each of these processes is highly dependent on the polymer(s) employed in the formulation.

Concepts: Crystal, Precipitation, Solubility, Solid, Cellulose, Crystallization, Methyl cellulose, Glass


Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a pathogenic factor of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). No vaccine or specific treatment is currently available for EV71 infection. Hence, we developed a buccal mucoadhesive gel containing matrine to protect against HFMD. Mucoadhesive gels were prepared by Carbopol 974P and were combined with Carbopol 971P, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na), or hydroxypropylmethy cellulose (HPMC K100M). The formulations were characterized in terms of tensile testing and continuous flow techniques for mucoadhesion. The rheological studies and in vitro drug release characteristics were also investigated. The results showed that combinations of two polymers significantly improved mucoadhesion, especially Carbopol 974P blended with HPMC. Carbopol 974P to HPMC blend ratios of 1:1 and 2:1 induced better mucoadhesion in the tensile test and continuous flow method, respectively. The most sustained release was obtained at a Carbopol 974P to HPMC ratio of 2.5:1. A predominantly non-Fickian diffusion release mechanism was obtained. The gel containing 2.5% Carbopol 974P combined with 1% HPMC showed good mucoadhesion properties and sustained drug release.

Concepts: Enterovirus, Ratio, Tensile strength, Cellulose, E number, Methyl cellulose, Gel, Carboxymethyl cellulose


Paliperidone (PLPD) is approved for treatment and management of schizophrenia. The current study demonstrates the potential of in situ gel of PLPD for nasal delivery. The permeation of drug through sheep nasal mucosa was analyzed since the nose-to-brain pathway has been indicated for delivering drugs to the brain. The carbopol 934 (CP)- and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K4M (HPMC)-based in situ gels containing 0.2% CP and 0.4% w/v HPMC were optimized using experimental design software. The use of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) in nasal permeation of drug was investigated. Transmucosal permeation of PLPD was examined using sheep nasal mucosa. The in situ gels of PLPD exhibited satisfactory mucoadhesion and showed sustained drug release. The mucocilliary toxicity and histopathological examination confirmed that the nasal mucosa architecture remains unaffected after treatment with PLPD in situ gel. The formulation containing HP-β-CD complex of PLPD exhibited higher rate of drug permeation through sheep nasal mucosa revealing the role of HP-β-CD as nasal absorption enhancer. Thus, CP- and HPMC-based pH-triggered in situ gel containing HP-β-CD-drug inclusion complex demonstrates a novel nasal delivery of PLPD.

Concepts: Cellulose, Mucus, E number, Methyl cellulose, Excipients, Psychoactive drug, Gel, Hypromellose


To assess the effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) 2% to prevent dry eye during phacoemulsification in senile and diabetic patients.

Concepts: Cellulose, E number, Methyl cellulose, Hypromellose