Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Method


The development of new method to cryopreserve human ovarian cortex tissues without damage is needed for the improvement of quality of life (QOL) of female cancer patients. Here we show novel cryopreservation method of human ovarian cortex tissues by using supercooling (S.C.) procedure. Our method will be helpful in order to preserve fertility of female cancer patients.

Concepts: Human, Life, Quality, Quality of life, Ovary, Method, Cryopreservation, Human Development Index


A new bioprinting method is reported for fabricating 3D tissue constructs replete with vasculature, multiple types of cells, and extracellular matrix. These intricate, heterogeneous structures are created by precisely co-printing multiple materials, known as bioinks, in three dimensions. These 3D micro-engineered environments open new -avenues for drug screening and fundamental studies of wound healing, angiogenesis, and stem-cell niches.

Concepts: Wound healing, Extracellular matrix, Healing, Angiogenesis, Dimension, Euclidean space, Abstract algebra, Method


Aliphatic C-H functionalization at indole 2α-position mediated by acyloxythionium species generated from sulfoxide and acid anhydride has been developed. The combination of sulfoxide and TFAA with O-, N- and C-nucleophiles enabled introduction of various substituents in a one-pot procedure. Especially on utilizing DMSO, the combination provided a practical and efficient method for the synthesis of a wide range of 2α-substituted indoles.

Concepts: Oxygen, Functional groups, Acid anhydride, Carboxylic acid, Indole, Method, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Acetic anhydride


A simple method for quantification of contrast in a fingerprint is proposed. Contrast is defined as the average difference in intensity of pixels between valleys and ridges in a fingerprint. It is quantified from a scanner-acquired image of the fingerprint using a histogram function of Adobe Photoshop. The method was validated with black inked prints and marks developed with aluminum powder. Moreover, we tested resistance of the method to rater-dependent errors and dependence of the measurements on the resolution of an image and the model of the scanner. For both groups of fingerprints, the method gave coherent and easily interpretable quantitative values for contrast. There were no significant differences between measurements performed by different raters and by the same rater in a test-retest procedure. However, the method was found to be instrument dependent, as measurements were significantly affected by image resolution and the model of the scanner.

Concepts: Function, Difference, First-order logic, Display resolution, Object-oriented programming, Method, RGB color model, Adobe Photoshop


The implementation of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems with virtual articulators, which take into account the kinematics, constitutes a breakthrough in the construction of customised dental prostheses. This paper presents a multidisciplinary protocol involving CAM techniques to produce dental prostheses. This protocol includes a step-by-step procedure using innovative reverse engineering technologies to transform completely virtual design processes into customised prostheses. A special emphasis is placed on a novel method that permits a virtual location of the models. The complete workflow includes the optical scanning of the patient, the use of reverse engineering software and, if necessary, the use of rapid prototyping to produce CAD temporary prostheses.

Concepts: Engineering, Computer-aided design, Design, Technology, Object-oriented programming, Method, Computer-aided engineering, Reverse engineering


3-Hydroxy-5,5-dimethyl-2-[phenyl(phenylthio)methyl]cyclohex-2-enone is synthesized via one-pot three-component reactions of aromatic aldehyde, substituted thiophenol and 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione catalyzed by p-dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) under ultrasound. Under ultrasound irradiation the yields are much higher (sometimes substantially, by almost double) and the reaction time decreases substantially, the reaction conditions are milder. This method provides several advantages such as environment friendliness, high yields and simple work-up procedure and the protocol provides a novel alternative for the synthesis of thioether.

Concepts: Chemical reaction, Chemical synthesis, Synthesis, Object-oriented programming, Method, Sulfonic acid


Zebrafish represents a very promising model to study memory function and impairment in vertebrates. The one-trial memory test has proven to be a reliable method to assess memory in mammals without the need for an extensive training procedure or the learning of a rule. To investigate whether such a test is suitable for zebrafish we observed adult fish in a modification of the original one-trial memory test developed for rats. Subjects were allowed to familiarize themselves with a new object for 25 min (exposure phase) and were then required to discriminate between the familiar object and a novel object that differed in shape and color (test phase). In both phases zebrafish showed a clear tendency to explore a new object, can memorize the characteristics of this object and use this information when a second object was presented irrespective of the delay (2, 6 or 24 hours) that separated the two phases. These results suggest that memory performance in fish could be also assessed using this very simple test.

Concepts: Psychology, Fish, Assessment, Memory, Object, Chordate, Object-oriented programming, Method



The sterilization of nanoparticles for biomedical applications is one of the challenges that must be faced in the development of nanoparticulate systems. Usually, autoclave sterilization cannot be applied because of stability concerns when polymeric nanoparticles are involved. This paper describes an innovative method which allows to obtain, using a single step autoclave procedure, the preparation and, at the same time, the sterilization of self-assembling nanohydrogels (NHs) obtained with cholesterol-derivatized gellan and hyaluronic acid. Moreover, by using this approach, NHs, while formed in the autoclave, can be easily loaded with drugs. The obtained NHs dispersion can be lyophilized in the presence of a cryoprotectant, leading to the original NHs after re-dispersion in water.

Concepts: Ultraviolet, Nanoparticle, Sol-gel, Colloid, Method, Sterilization, Autoclave, Hyaluronan


Orally disintegrating (mini)tablets (OD(M)Ts) are of interest in the field of pharmaceutics. Their orodispersible character is defined by the disintegration time, which is measured with a basket apparatus according to the European Pharmacopoeia. This method, however, lacks applicability for ODTs and especially ODMTs. New disintegration apparatuses have been described in literature, but a qualification to assess the applicability has not been described. A qualification procedure for two automated disintegration apparatuses, OD-mate and Hermes apparatus, is introduced.

Concepts: According to Jim, The Europeans, Object-oriented programming, Method, Disintegration