SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Method acting

163

Inspired by theories of higher local order autocorrelation (HLAC), this paper presents a simple, novel, yet very powerful approach for wood recognition. The method is suitable for wood database applications, which are of great importance in wood related industries and administrations. At the feature extraction stage, a set of features is extracted from Mask Matching Image (MMI). The MMI features preserve the mask matching information gathered from the HLAC methods. The texture information in the image can then be accurately extracted from the statistical and geometrical features. In particular, richer information and enhanced discriminative power is achieved through the length histogram, a new histogram that embodies the width and height histograms. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to the state-of-the-art HLAC approaches using the wood stereogram dataset ZAFU WS 24. By conducting extensive experiments on ZAFU WS 24, we show that our approach significantly improves the classification accuracy.

Concepts: Statistics, Method acting, Histogram, Extraction, Height, Length, Power, The Mask

36

Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical materials are important to a wide range of emerging technological applications. We report a method to synthesize complex 3D microengineered materials, such as microlattices, with nearly fully dense truss elements with a minimum diameter of approximately 20 μm and having high aspect ratios (up to 20:1) without using any templating or supporting materials. By varying the postprocessing conditions, we have also introduced an additional control over the internal porosity of the truss elements to demonstrate a hierarchical porous structure with an overall void size and feature size control of over five orders of magnitudes in length scale. The method uses direct printing of nanoparticle dispersions using the Aerosol Jet technology in 3D space without templating or supporting materials followed by binder removal and sintering. In addition to 3D microlattices, we have also demonstrated directly printed stretchable interconnects, spirals, and pillars. This assembly method could be implemented by a variety of microdroplet generation methods for fast and large-scale fabrication of the hierarchical materials for applications in tissue engineering, ultralight or multifunctional materials, microfluidics, and micro-optoelectronics.

Concepts: Method acting, Ratio, Demonstration, Porosity, Printing, Aspect ratio, Ratios, Truss

30

Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding has emerged as a potentially powerful tool to assess aquatic community structures. However, the method has hitherto lacked field tests that evaluate its effectiveness and practical properties as a biodiversity monitoring tool. Here, we evaluated the ability of eDNA metabarcoding to reveal fish community structures in species-rich coastal waters. High-performance fish-universal primers and systematic spatial water sampling at 47 stations covering ~11 km(2) revealed the fish community structure at a species resolution. The eDNA metabarcoding based on a 6-h collection of water samples detected 128 fish species, of which 62.5% (40 species) were also observed by underwater visual censuses conducted over a 14-year period. This method also detected other local fishes (≥23 species) that were not observed by the visual censuses. These eDNA metabarcoding features will enhance marine ecosystem-related research, and the method will potentially become a standard tool for surveying fish communities.

Concepts: Species, Fish, Water, Structure, Method acting, Pacific Ocean, Community, Ocean

30

As evidence accumulates on the use of genomic tests and other health-related applications of genomic technologies, decision makers may increasingly seek support in identifying which applications have sufficiently robust evidence to suggest they might be considered for action. As an interim working process to provide such support, we developed a horizon-scanning method that assigns genomic applications to tiers defined by availability of synthesized evidence. We illustrate an application of the method to pharmacogenomics tests.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2014); advance online publication 19 February 2014. doi:10.1038/clpt.2013.226.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Decision making, Method acting, Developed country, Control theory, Computer program, 2007 albums, Application software

29

While metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) presently attract enormous research interest because of their high solar to electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) and low fabrication costs, their practical development is hampered by difficulties to reach high performance on large size devices. Here we introduce a simple vacuum-flash solution processing method to obtain shiny, smooth and crystalline perovskite films of high electronic quality over large areas. This enables us to fabricate solar cells with an aperture area exceeding 1 cm(2) showing a maximum efficiency of 20.5% and a certified PCE of 19.6. This exceeds by far the current certified record of 15.6% for PSC of similar size. We demonstrate that the reproducibility of the method is excellent and that the cells show virtually no hysteresis. The success of this new approach paves the way to realize highly efficient large-area PSCs for practical deployment.

Concepts: Method acting, Solar cell, Energy conversion, Energy conversion efficiency, Energy development, Halide, Aperture, Metal halide lamp

28

Existing acne grading methods, which depend on overall impression, require a long training period and there is a high degree of variability among raters, including trained dermatologists. The use of lesion count provides fair reproducibility but the method is time consuming. New technologies in photographic equipment and software allow solutions to the problem of acne evaluation. This study was conducted to develop the automatic acne lesion program and evaluation of its usefulness.

Concepts: Method acting, Training, Digital photography, Programming language, Image processing, Digital image processing, The Automatic

28

Proportionality of the lower and middle thirds of the face is a key determinant of successful orthognathic treatment. A flatter profile and marked variance of the soft tissue envelope in the Japanese population complicates the accurate assessment of these proportions. This study aimed to identify gender differences and establish norms for Japanese young adults using the method of soft tissue cephalometric analysis (STCA) by Arnett et al (Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 116:239, 1999).

Concepts: Sample size, Biology, Method acting, Sociology, Tissues, Japan, Soft tissue, Face

28

An accurate, sensitive, precise and rapid gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was successfully developed and validated for the determination of doxycycline hyclate in bulk drug and tablets. The best separation was achieved on a 250 × 4.6 mm, 5.0 µm particle size CN Luna column with water + 0.1% TFA-acetonitrile + 0.1% TFA, 60:40 (v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Ultraviolet detection was performed at 360 nm at ambient column temperature (25°C). The method was linear over the concentration range of 50-100 µg/mL (r = 0.9999) with limits of detection and quantification of 2.83 and 8.59 µg/mL, respectively. The drug was subjected to oxidation, acid, base and neutral degradation, photolysis and heat as stress conditions. Degradation products were found interfering with the assay of doxycycline hyclate, therefore the method can be regarded as suitable. The method was applied for the determination of doxycycline hyclate in standard and pharmaceutical products, with excellent recoveries. The method can be used for the quality control of doxycycline hyclate.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Hydrogen, Method acting, Chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, Analytical chemistry, Doxycycline, Chemical engineering

28

This study focused on the occurrence of several EDCs including bisphenol A, estrone (E1), the 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in fourteen rivers of Portugal. Samples analysis revealed a widespread contamination of BPA especially in Ave, Cávado, Douro, Ferro, Sousa and Vizela Rivers. Achieving 98.4 ng/L for the highest concentration. The estrogens achieved above the method quantification limit (MQL) were E1 in Águeda River and E2 in Ave, Lima and Tâmega Rivers. The maximum concentration detected for E1 was 26.9 ng/L. EE2 was detected only below MQL.

Concepts: Method acting, Portugal, Bisphenol A, Calculus, Mathematical analysis, Xenoestrogen, Iberian Peninsula, River

27

Assessing functional diversity from space can help predict productivity and stability of forest ecosystems at global scale using biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. We present a new spatially continuous method to map regional patterns of tree functional diversity using combined laser scanning and imaging spectroscopy. The method does not require prior taxonomic information and integrates variation in plant functional traits between and within plant species. We compare our method with leaf-level field measurements and species-level plot inventory data and find reasonable agreement. Morphological and physiological diversity show consistent change with topography and soil, with low functional richness at a mountain ridge under specific environmental conditions. Overall, functional richness follows a logarithmic increase with area, whereas divergence and evenness are scale invariant. By mapping diversity at scales of individual trees to whole communities we demonstrate the potential of assessing functional diversity from space, providing a pathway only limited by technological advances and not by methodology.

Concepts: Species, Method acting, Ecosystem, Tree, Methodology, Map, Scale, Scales