SciCombinator

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Concept: Mentha

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This study is aimed at determining the efficacy of Mentha spicata (M. spicata) and Mentha × piperita (M. × piperita) in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).

Concepts: Chemotherapy, Volatile, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Herbs, Mentha, Essential oils, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica

28

(-)-Carvone is a monoterpene ketone found in spearmint (Mentha spicata var. crispa) essential oil that is widely used as an odor and flavor additive. An intestinal antispasmodic effect was recently reported for (-)-carvone, and it has been shown to be more potent than its (+)-antipode. The mechanism of (-)-carvone action in the intestines has not been investigated. To gain a better understanding of the (-)-carvone antispasmodic effect, we investigated its pharmacological effects in the guinea pig ileum. Terminal portions of the ileum were mounted for isotonic contraction recordings. The effect of (-)-carvone was compared with that of the classical calcium channel blocker (CCB) verapamil. In isolated ileal smooth muscle, (-)-carvone did not produce direct contractile or relaxation responses and did not modify electrically elicited contractions or low K-evoked contractions. The submaximal contractions induced by histamine (p<0.001), BaCl (p<0.05), and carbachol (p<0.01) were significantly reduced by (-)-carvone. The contractile response elicited by high concentrations of carbachol was reduced but not abolished by (-)-carvone. No additive action was detected with co-incubation of (-)-carvone and verapamil on carbachol-induced contraction. (-)-Carvone reduced the contraction induced by high K and was almost 100 times more potent than verapamil. Thus, (-)-carvone showed a typical and potent CCB-like action. Many effects described for both (-)-carvone and spearmint oil can be explained as a CCB-like mode of action.

Concepts: Intestine, Small intestine, Calcium channel blocker, Herbs, Mentha, Essential oils, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica

28

The objectives of this work were to evaluate the phytomass yield, essential oil (EO) content and EO yield of Mentha spicata L. var. rubra, M. spicata L. var. viridis and Calamintha nepeta Savi in Piedmont (Italy), and to study how postharvest management (hydrodistillation of EO from fresh, dehumidified or oven-dried herbs) can affect the EO content and profile of the three species.

Concepts: Lamiaceae, Essential oil, Oil, Herbs, Mentha, Essential oils, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica

28

Spray dried microcapsules of mint oil were prepared using gum Arabic alone and its blends with radiation or enzymatically depolymerized guar gum as wall materials. Microcapsules were evaluated for retention of mint oil during 8-week storage during which qualitative changes in encapsulated mint oil was monitored using principal component analysis. The microcapsules with radiation depolymerized guar gum as wall material component could better retain major mint oil compounds such as menthol and isomenthol. The t(½) calculated for mint oil in microcapsules of gum Arabic, gum Arabic:radiation depolymerized guar gum (90:10), gum Arabic:enzyme depolymerized guar gum (90:10) was 25.66, 38.50, and 17.11 weeks, respectively. The results suggested a combination of radiation depolymerized guar gum and gum Arabic to show better retention of encapsulated flavour than gum Arabic alone as wall material.

Concepts: Data analysis, Principal component analysis, Singular value decomposition, Qualitative, Paint, Gums, Gum arabic, Mentha

21

The present paper reports a complete mass spectrometric characterization of both the phenolic and volatile fractions of a dried spearmint extract. Phenolic compounds were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS(n)) and a total of 66 compounds were tentatively identified, being the widest phenolic characterisation of spearmint to date. The analysis suggests that the extract is composed of rosmarinic acid and its derivatives (230.5 ± 13.5 mg/g) with smaller amounts of salvianolic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavones, and flavanones. Head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique, that was applied to characterize the volatile fraction of spearmint, identified molecules belonging to different chemical classes, such as p-cymene, isopiperitone, and piperitone, dihydroedulan II, menthone, p-cymen-8-ol, and β-linalool. This comprehensive phytochemical analysis can be useful to test the authenticity of this product rich in rosmarinic acid and other phenolics, and when assessing its biological properties. It may also be applied to other plant-derived food extracts and beverages containing a broad range of phytochemical compounds.

Concepts: Alcohol, Carbon dioxide, Mass spectrometry, Phenols, Phenolic compounds in wine, Mentha, Mentha spicata

5

A chemical cross-talk between plants and insects is required in order to achieve a successful co-adaptation. In response to herbivory, plants produce specific compounds, and feeding insects respond adequately7 to molecules produced by plants. Here we show the role of the gut microbial community of the mint beetle Chrysolina herbacea in the chemical cross-talk with Mentha aquatica (or watermint).

Concepts: Bacteria, Microbiology, Water, Flowering plant, Mentha, Peppermint, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica

1

The commercially important essential oils of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and its relatives in the mint family (Lamiaceae) are accumulated in specialized anatomical structures called glandular trichomes (GTs). A genome-scale stoichiometric model of secretory phase metabolism in peppermint GTs was constructed based on current biochemical and physiological knowledge. Fluxes through the network were predicted based on metabolomic and transcriptomic data. Using simulated reaction deletions, this model predicted that two processes, the regeneration of ATP and ferredoxin (in its reduced form), exert substantial control over flux toward monoterpenes. Follow-up biochemical assays with isolated GTs indicated that oxidative phosphorylation and ethanolic fermentation were active, and that cooperation to provide ATP depended on the concentration of the carbon source. We also report that GTs with high flux toward monoterpenes express, at very high levels, genes coding for a unique pair of ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase isoforms. This study provides the first evidence how bioenergetic processes determine flux through monoterpene biosynthesis in GTs.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Metabolism, Adenosine triphosphate, Oxidative phosphorylation, Carbon, Oil, Mentha, Peppermint

1

Anaphylaxis, a form of IgE mediated hypersensitivity, arises when mast cells and possibly basophils are provoked to secrete mediators with potent vasoactive and smooth muscle contractile activities that evoke a systemic response. We report a case of IgE mediated anaphylaxis to peppermint (Mentha piperita) in a male shortly after sucking on a candy.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Cell biology, Immunoglobulin E, Allergy, Mast cell, Mentha, Peppermint

0

The biotransformation of (4R)-(-)-carvone by Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal) leaves and its endophytic bacteria was performed in order to search for novel biocatalysts with enoate reductase activity. The obtained results clearly indicated that endophytes play an important role in the biotransformation of (4R)-(-)-carvone with pennyroyal plant tissues. The best activity was associated to the endophytic bacteria Pseudomonas proteolytica FM18Mci1 and Bacillus sp. FM18civ1. Enoate reductase activity for the reduction of (4R)-(-)-carvone and (4S)-(+)-carvone as model substrates was evaluated for each strain. Finally, both isolated strains were evaluated for the kinetic resolution of racemic carvone. The two bacteria gave (1R, 4R) or (1R, 4S)-dihydrocarvone as major products. P. proteolytica FM18Mci1 had preference for the 4S-(-)-carvone, reaching a conversion 95% in 24 h. In contrast, Bacillus sp. FM18civ1 had preference for (4R)-(-)-carvone. The results obtained in the kinetic resolution of carvone indicated that the Bacillus strain could be useful for resolving a racemic mixture of carvone.

Concepts: Bacteria, Microbiology, Fungus, Stereochemistry, Pseudomonas, Endophyte, Pennyroyal, Mentha

0

The insecticidal activities of 13 Lamiaceae plant oils and their components against adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae), were evaluated using fumigant and contact bioassay. Among the tested oils, basil, pennyroyal, and spearmint showed the strongest insecticidal activities against adult B. germanica. Insecticidal activity of pennyroyal was 100% against male B. germanica at 1.25 mg concentration in fumigant bioassay. Basil and spearmint revealed 100% and 100% insecticidal activity against male B. germanica at 5 mg concentration, but their activities reduced to 80% and 25% at 2.5 mg concentration, respectively. In contact, toxicity bioassay, basil, pennyroyal, and spearmint oils exhibited 100%, 100%, and 98% mortality against female B. germanica at 1 mg/♀, respectively. Among the constituents identified in basil, pennyroyal, and spearmint oils, insecticidal activity of pulegone was the strongest against male and female B. germanica.

Concepts: Male, Activity, The Strongest, Essential oil, Cockroach, Mentha, Cockroaches, German cockroach