SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Mental status examination

179

Some 5%-15% of all women experience postpartum depression (PPD), which for many is their first psychiatric disorder. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of postpartum affective disorder (AD), duration of treatment, and rate of subsequent postpartum AD and other affective episodes in a nationwide cohort of women with no prior psychiatric history.

Concepts: Cohort study, Childbirth, Mental disorder, Schizophrenia, Psychiatry, Dysthymia, Mental status examination, Postpartum depression

170

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, accompanied by synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Antibody-based immunotherapy against Aβ to trigger its clearance or mitigate its neurotoxicity has so far been unsuccessful. Here we report the generation of aducanumab, a human monoclonal antibody that selectively targets aggregated Aβ. In a transgenic mouse model of AD, aducanumab is shown to enter the brain, bind parenchymal Aβ, and reduce soluble and insoluble Aβ in a dose-dependent manner. In patients with prodromal or mild AD, one year of monthly intravenous infusions of aducanumab reduces brain Aβ in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This is accompanied by a slowing of clinical decline measured by Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes and Mini Mental State Examination scores. The main safety and tolerability findings are amyloid-related imaging abnormalities. These results justify further development of aducanumab for the treatment of AD. Should the slowing of clinical decline be confirmed in ongoing phase 3 clinical trials, it would provide compelling support for the amyloid hypothesis.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Neuron, Clinical trial, Monoclonal antibodies, Neurology, Dementia, Mental status examination, Neurofibrillary tangle

170

BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia and their families have suffered greatly from stigmatizing effects. Although many efforts have been made to eradicate both prejudice and stigma, they still prevail even among medical professionals, and little is known about how contact with schizophrenia patients affects their attitudes towards schizophrenia. METHODS: We assessed the impact of the renaming of the Japanese term for schizophrenia on clinical residents and also evaluated the influence of contact with schizophrenia patients on attitudes toward schizophrenia by comparing the attitudes toward schizophrenia before and after a one-month clinical training period in psychiatry. Fifty-one clinical residents participated. Their attitudes toward schizophrenia were assessed twice, before and one month after clinical training in psychiatry using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as well as Link’s devaluation-discrimination scale. RESULTS: The old term for schizophrenia, “Seishin-Bunretsu-Byo”, was more congruent with criminal than the new term for schizophrenia, “Togo-Shitcho-Sho”, before clinical training. However, quite opposite to our expectation, after clinical training the new term had become even more congruent with criminal than the old term. There was no significant correlation between Link’s scale and IAT effect. CONCLUSIONS: Renaming the Japanese term for schizophrenia still reduced the negative images of schizophrenia among clinical residents. However, contact with schizophrenia patients unexpectedly changed clinical residents' attitudes towards schizophrenia negatively. Our results might contribute to an understanding of the formation of negative attitudes about schizophrenia and assist in developing appropriate clinical training in psychiatry that could reduce prejudice and stigma concerning schizophrenia.

Concepts: Health care provider, Medicine, Effect, Effectiveness, Implicit Association Test, Anti-psychiatry, Mental status examination

42

A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter 52-week phase 2 trial of resveratrol in individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) examined its safety and tolerability and effects on biomarker (plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42, CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, tau, and phospho-tau 181) and volumetric MRI outcomes (primary outcomes) and clinical outcomes (secondary outcomes).

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Clinical trial, Primary education, Mental status examination, Tauopathy, Proteopathy

40

As the US elderly population continues to expand rapidly, Alzheimer’s disease poses a major and increasing public health challenge, and older African Americans may be disproportionately burdened by the disease. Although African Americans were generally underincluded in previous research studies, new and growing evidence suggests that they may be at increased risk of the disease and that they differ from the non-Hispanic white population in risk factors and disease manifestation. This article offers an overview of the challenges of Alzheimer’s disease in African Americans, including diagnosis issues, disparities in risk factors and clinical presentation of disease, and community-based recommendations to enhance research with this population.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, White American, African American, Mental status examination, Southern United States, Puerto Rico

31

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a source of great disease burden, due in part to the limited accessibility and effectiveness of current treatments. Although current treatments are efficacious in a segment of the population with MDD, there is a clear need for alternative and augmentation treatment strategies. Exercise is one such alternative treatment option. Research has shown exercise to be efficacious as both a stand-alone and an augmentation therapy. As a result, exercise is now included in the American Psychiatric Association’s treatment recommendations. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with a knowledge base to prescribe exercise to their patients. The authors describe the evidence supporting the use of exercise in the treatment of MDD, provide evidence-based recommendations for prescribing exercise, and address practical considerations related to prescribing exercise in real-world treatment settings. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2013;19:204-212).

Concepts: Life expectancy, Alternative medicine, Major depressive disorder, Dysthymia, Mental status examination, Medical prescription, Disease burden, American Psychiatric Association

30

Study Design Groin pain is common in athletes participating in multidirectional sports and has traditionally been considered a difficult problem to understand, diagnose, and manage. This may be due to sparse historical focus on this complex region in sports medicine. Until recently, there was no agreement regarding terminology, definitions, and classification of groin pain in athletes. This has made clear communication between clinicians difficult, and the results of research difficult to interpret and implement into practice. However, during the past decade the field has evolved rapidly, and an evidence-based understanding is now emerging. This clinical commentary discusses the clinical examination (subjective history, screening, physical examination); imaging; testing of impairments, function, and performance, and; management of athletes with groin pain in an evidence-based framework. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 6 Mar 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7850.

Concepts: Medicine, Medical diagnosis, Problem solving, Physical examination, Mental status examination, Medical history, Inspection, General medical examination

27

Thal amyloid phase, which describes the pattern of progressive amyloid-β plaque deposition in Alzheimer’s disease, was incorporated into the latest National Institute of Ageing - Alzheimer’s Association neuropathologic assessment guidelines. Amyloid biomarkers (positron emission tomography and cerebrospinal fluid) were included in clinical diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease dementia published by the National Institute of Ageing - Alzheimer’s Association and the International Work group. Our first goal was to evaluate the correspondence of Thal amyloid phase to Braak tangle stage and ante-mortem clinical characteristics in a large autopsy cohort. Second, we examined the relevance of Thal amyloid phase in a prospectively-followed autopsied cohort who underwent ante-mortem (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B imaging; using the large autopsy cohort to broaden our perspective of (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B results. The Mayo Clinic Jacksonville Brain Bank case series (n = 3618) was selected regardless of ante-mortem clinical diagnosis and neuropathologic co-morbidities, and all assigned Thal amyloid phase and Braak tangle stage using thioflavin-S fluorescent microscopy. (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B studies from Mayo Clinic Rochester were available for 35 participants scanned within 2 years of death. Cortical (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B values were calculated as a standard uptake value ratio normalized to cerebellum grey/white matter. In the high likelihood Alzheimer’s disease brain bank cohort (n = 1375), cases with lower Thal amyloid phases were older at death, had a lower Braak tangle stage, and were less frequently APOE-ε4 positive. Regression modelling in these Alzheimer’s disease cases, showed that Braak tangle stage, but not Thal amyloid phase predicted age at onset, disease duration, and final Mini-Mental State Examination score. In contrast, Thal amyloid phase, but not Braak tangle stage or cerebral amyloid angiopathy predicted (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B standard uptake value ratio. In the 35 cases with ante-mortem amyloid imaging, a transition between Thal amyloid phases 1 to 2 seemed to correspond to (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B standard uptake value ratio of 1.4, which when using our pipeline is the cut-off point for detection of clear amyloid-positivity regardless of clinical diagnosis. Alzheimer’s disease cases who were older and were APOE-ε4 negative tended to have lower amyloid phases. Although Thal amyloid phase predicted clinical characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease patients, the pre-mortem clinical status was driven by Braak tangle stage. Thal amyloid phase correlated best with (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B values, but not Braak tangle stage or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B cut-off point value of 1.4 was approximately equivalent to a Thal amyloid phase of 1-2.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Clinical trial, Death, Positron emission tomography, Amyloid, Mental status examination, Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, Alzheimer's Association

27

Visualization and interpretation of the optic nerve and retina are essential parts of most physical examinations.

Concepts: Retina, Physical examination, Mental status examination, Optic nerve

27

Purpose: To evaluate differences between the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and RNFL + ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness in patients affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and healthy patients using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: This was a case-control prospective study. Twenty-one AD patients and 21 healthy subjects underwent neurological examination, clock drawing test (CDT), mini mental state examination (MMSE) and comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation with visual acuity. SD-OCT examination was performed using Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), and RTVue-100 (Optovue Inc., Freemont, CA, USA). A RNFL thickness map was obtained using the Spectralis volume protocol with 19 lines on the 30° field centered on the macula. On each B-scan, the outer RNFL limit was manually set. Statistical analysis was performed to assess interoperator RNFL evaluation thickness. A RNFL + GCL thickness map was obtained using the RTVue-100 MM6 protocol. Maps were divided in the 9 ETDRS subfields and each map value in every area was evaluated. A single eye from each patient was randomly chosen to perform the analysis. Differences between AD and healthy subjects were assessed. Results: The two study groups were age and sex matched. MMSE results were 19.9 +- 3.1 and 27.9 +- 1.3, respectively (p < 0.001). There was good agreement in the manual delimitation of the RNFL layer. There was a significant difference in the thickness of both the RNFL and the RNFL+GCL in all examined fields. For example in the inferior internal subfield, the RNFL thickness was 28.1 μm +- 3.1 μm for AD patients and 32.6 μm +- 3.8 μm for healthy subjects (p < 0.001). Conclusion: These results indicate that RNFL and RNFL+GCL thickness measurements are reduced in AD patients compared to healthy subjects. This finding may represent a useful element for the diagnosis and follow up of this pathology.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Nervous system, Optics, Assessment, Retina, Eye, Mental status examination, Nerve fiber layer