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Concept: Mental illness diagnosis by DSM and ICD

123

The objective was to estimate temporal associations between mental disorders and physical diseases in adolescents with mental-physical comorbidities.

Concepts: Mental disorder, Comorbidity, Mental illness diagnosis by DSM and ICD

24

Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is rarely encountered in clinical settings. It is described as a re-experiencing of some perceptual distortions induced while intoxicated and suggested to subsequently cause functional impairment or anxiety. Two forms exist: Type 1, which are brief “flashbacks,” and Type 2 claimed to be chronic, waxing, and waning over months to years. A review of HPPD is presented. In addition, data from a comprehensive survey of 20 subjects reporting Type-2 HPPD-like symptoms are presented and evaluated. Dissociative Symptoms are consistently associated with HPPD. Results of the survey suggest that HPPD is in most cases due to a subtle over-activation of predominantly neural visual pathways that worsens anxiety after ingestion of arousal-altering drugs, including non-hallucinogenic substances. Individual or family histories of anxiety and pre-drug use complaints of tinnitus, eye floaters, and concentration problems may predict vulnerability for HPPD. Future research should take a broader outlook as many perceptual symptoms reported were not first experienced while intoxicated and are partially associated with pre-existing psychiatric comorbidity.

Concepts: Psychology, Visual system, Sense, Concepts in metaphysics, Mental disorder, Mental illness diagnosis by DSM and ICD, Psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants, Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder

16

Depression and chronic pain are the two most important causes of disability (Global Burden of Disease Study 2013). They occur together more frequently than expected and both conditions have been shown to be co-morbid with cardiovascular disease. Although shared socio-demographic risk factors (e.g. gender, deprivation) might explain the co-morbidity of these three conditions, we hypothesised that these three long-term, highly prevalent conditions co-occur and may be due to shared familial risk, and/or genetic factors.

Concepts: Medicine, Genetics, Epidemiology, Disease, Actuarial science, Mental disorder, Comorbidity, Mental illness diagnosis by DSM and ICD

8

This study sought to estimate i) the prevalence of the co-occurrence of, ii) the association between, and iii) the sequence of onset of chronic pain and mental disorders in adolescents. We used weighted data (N=6483) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (participants' age: 13-18 years). Lifetime chronic pain was assessed by adolescent self-report, lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders by the WHO CIDI, complemented by parent report. Among the study’s subjects, 1600 out of 6476 (25.93%) had experienced any type of chronic pain and any mental disorder in their lifetime. All types of pain were related to mental disorders. The most substantial temporal associations were those with onset of mental disorders preceding onset of chronic pain, including those between affective disorders and headaches and any chronic pain; between anxiety disorders and chronic back/neck pain, headaches, and any chronic pain; between behavior disorders and headaches and any chronic pain; and between any mental disorder and chronic back/neck pain, headaches, and any chronic pain.

Concepts: Psychology, Mental disorder, Abnormal psychology, Schizophrenia, Mental illness diagnosis by DSM and ICD, Classification of mental disorders

8

Individuals with serious mental disorders experience poor physical health, especially increased rates of cardiometabolic morbidity and premature morbidity. Recent evidence suggests that individuals with schizophrenia have numerous comorbid physical conditions that may be under-recorded and undertreated, but to date very few studies have explored this issue for bipolar disorder.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Mental disorder, Schizophrenia, Borderline personality disorder, Mental illness diagnosis by DSM and ICD, Suicide, Schizoaffective disorder

6

Attitudes toward marijuana are changing, the prevalence of DSM-IV cannabis use disorder has increased, and DSM-5 modified the cannabis use disorder criteria. Therefore, updated information is needed on the prevalence, demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, and treatment for DSM-5 cannabis use disorder.

Concepts: Demographics, Mental disorder, Clinical psychology, Schizophrenia, Mental illness diagnosis by DSM and ICD, American Psychiatric Association

6

No studies have evaluated whether the frequently observed associations between depression and diabetes could reflect the presence of comorbid psychiatric conditions and their associations with diabetes. We therefore examined the associations between a wide range of pre-existing Diagnostic Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders with self-reported diagnosis of diabetes.

Concepts: Scientific method, Diabetes mellitus, Mental disorder, Schizophrenia, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Comorbidity, Mental illness diagnosis by DSM and ICD, Cross-cultural psychiatry

6

The increased prevalence and high comorbidity of metabolic syndrome and mental health disorders have prompted investigation into the potential contributing mechanisms. There is a bidirectional association between metabolic syndrome and mental health disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. Medication side effects and social repercussions are contributing environmental factors, but there are a number of shared underlying neurological and physiological mechanisms that explain the high comorbidity between these two disorders. Inflammation is a state shared by both disorders, and it contributes to disruptions of neuroregulatory systems, including the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and neuropeptide Y systems, as well as dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Metabolic syndrome in pregnant women also exposes the developing fetal brain to inflammatory factors that predispose the offspring to metabolic syndrome and mental health disorders. Due to the shared nature of these conditions, treatment should address aspects of both mental health and metabolic disorders. Additionally, interventions need to be developed that can interrupt the transfer of increased risk of the disorders to the next generation. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Autism, Mental disorder, Asperger syndrome, Borderline personality disorder, Bipolar disorder, Major depressive disorder, Mental illness diagnosis by DSM and ICD

5

Abstract Nationally representative data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to compare HIV testing prevalence among US adults with mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and/or anxiety) to those without, providing an update of prior work using 1999 and 2002 NHIS data. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the probability of ever being tested for HIV by mental illness status, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, substance abuse, excessive alcohol or tobacco use, and HIV risk factors. Based on data from 21,785 respondents, 15% of adults had a psychiatric disorder and 37% ever had an HIV test. Persons with schizophrenia (64%), bipolar disorder (63%), and depression and/or anxiety (47%) were more likely to report ever being tested for HIV than those without mental illness (35%). In multivariable models, individuals reporting schizophrenia (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.68, 95% confidence interval=1.33-2.13), bipolar disease (1.58, 1.39-1.81), and depression and/or anxiety (1.31, 1.25-1.38) were more likely to be tested for HIV than persons without these diagnoses. Similar to previous analyses, persons with mental illness were more likely to have been tested than those without mental illness. However, the elevated prevalence of HIV in populations with mental illness suggests that high levels of testing along with other prevention efforts are needed.

Concepts: Mental disorder, Schizophrenia, Borderline personality disorder, Bipolar disorder, Disability, Mental illness diagnosis by DSM and ICD, Suicide, Schizoaffective disorder

3

Despite substantial evidence on the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity (OW/OB) in adults with bipolar disorder (BD), little is known about this topic in adolescents with BD.

Concepts: Bipolar disorder, Mental illness diagnosis by DSM and ICD