Perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women’s menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depression. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of individualized homeopathic treatment versus placebo and fluoxetine versus placebo in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression.
Poor menstrual knowledge and access to sanitary products have been proposed as barriers to menstrual health and school attendance. In response, interventions targeting these needs have seen increasing implementation in public and private sectors. However, there has been limited assessment of their effectiveness.
Primary dysmenorrhea is common among women of reproductive age. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and oral contraceptives are effective treatments, although the failure rate is around 20-25%. Therefore additional evidence-based treatments are needed. In recent years, the use of smartphone applications (apps) has increased rapidly and may support individuals in self-management strategies.
To identify the prevalence and impact of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in exercising females where anemia may have a significant effect on training and performance a ‘Female Health Questionnaire’ was designed incorporating a validated diagnostic HMB series, demographics, exercise ability data, training status, anemia, iron supplementation and whether the menstrual cycle had affected training and performance. The survey was conducted in two stages; initially online, advertised via social media, and then repeated via face-to-face interviews with runners registered for the 2015 London Marathon. 789 participants responded to the online survey, and 1073 completed the survey at the marathon. HMB was reported by half of those online (54%), and by more than a third of the marathon runners (36%). Surprisingly, HMB was also prevalent amongst elite athletes (37%). Overall, 32% of exercising females reported a history of anemia, and 50% had previously supplemented with iron. Only a minority (22%) had sought medical advice. HMB is highly prevalent in exercising females, associated with self-reported anemia, increased use of iron supplementation and a perceived negative impact on performance. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of HMB, iron deficiency and anemia in exercising females.
Objectives:Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) represents the most complex form of endometriosis and its treatment is still challenging. The coexistence of DIE with other appearances of endometriosis stimulates new studies to improve the preoperative diagnosis. Adenomyosis is a clinical form that shares several symptoms with DIE. The present study investigated the possible presence of adenomyosis in a group of women with DIE and its impact on pre- and postoperative symptoms.Materials and Methods:A group of women (n = 121) undergoing laparoscopic treatment for DIE were enrolled. Clinical and ultrasound evaluations were performed as preoperative assessment. The ultrasonographical appearances of DIE and of adenomyosis were recorded by 2-dimensional ultrasound. The following symptoms were considered: dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, abnormal uterine bleeding, bowel, and urinary symptoms. Pain was evaluated by the visual analog scale system and menstrual bleeding was assessed by the use of the pictorial blood assessment chart. In a subgroup of women (n = 55), a follow-up evaluation (3-6 months after surgery) was done.Results:A relevant number of patients with DIE showed adenomyosis (n = 59; 48.7%); in this group, dysmenorrhea (P = .0019), dyspareunia (P = .0004), and abnormal uterine bleeding (P < .001) were statistically higher than that in the group with only DIE. After surgery, painful symptoms improved in the whole group but remained significantly higher (P < .001) in the group with adenomyosis.Conclusions:Deep infiltrating endometriosis is frequently associated with adenomyosis, significantly affecting pre- and postoperative symptoms and thus influencing the follow-up management.
The human uterus is composed of the endometrial lining and the myometrium. The endometrium, in particular the functionalis layer, regenerates and regresses with each menstrual cycle under hormonal control. A mouse xenograft model has been developed in which the functional changes of the endometrium are reproduced. The myometrium possesses similar plasticity, critical to permit the changes connected with uterine expansion and involution associated with pregnancy. Regeneration and remodeling in the uterus are likely achieved through endometrial and myometrial stem cell systems. Putative stem/progenitor cells in humans and rodents recently have been identified, isolated and characterized. Their roles in endometrial physiology and pathophysiology are presently under study. These stem/progenitor cells ultimately may provide a novel means by which to produce tissues and organs in vitro and in vivo.
Menstruation is the genital sign of systemic endocrine events. Heterogeneity of perimenstrual symptoms is associated with levels of inflammation, triggered by the fall of estrogens at genital and systemic level. Aim of the review is to concisely analyze the evidence on: 1) genital and systemic endocrine and inflammatory events associated with periods and perimenstrual symptoms; 2) rationale of intervention to reduce their intensity and impact on women’s lives. This review of the literature, selected with a clinical perspective, supports the inflammatory basis of the menstrual event, triggered by the estrogens' and progesterone' fall. Moreover, the review analyzes the endocrine and inflammatory basis of perimenstrual pelvic and extrapelvic symptoms such as: menstrual pain, menstrual irregularities, premenstrual syndrome, gastrointestinal symptoms, catamenial headache, depression, perimenstrual myalgia, joint pain, allergies and asthma, heavy menstrual bleeding, associated ironless anemia, brain and behavioral consequences. Inflammation, with increase of cytokines and other markers, is modulated by the degranulation of mast cells at the basal level of the endometrium, in the blood, in all the organs where mast-cell are already activated from local pathologies and within the brain. The shift of inflammation from physiological to a pathologic intensity increases the severity of perimenstrual symptoms. Symptoms persist, moderately attenuated, also during the hormone free interval (HFI) in contraception. The HFI reduction from seven to two days significantly reduces menstrual inflammation and associated symptoms.
Abnormal uterine bleeding refers to any change in the regularity, frequency, heaviness or length of menstruation. There are several potential causes for bleeding disturbance, the two most common being primary endometrial dysfunction and fibroids. Management of abnormal uterine bleeding involves both medical and surgical options and will largely depend on a patient’s fertility plans. The use of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine devices for heavy menstrual bleeding is increasing in Australia, and they are considered first-line medical management for women accepting of hormonal therapies. Tranexamic acid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the combined oral contraceptive pill and oral progestins offer alternatives. Hysterectomy offers a definitive surgical approach to abnormal uterine bleeding and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction. Women wishing to preserve their fertility, or avoid hysterectomy, may be offered myomectomy. Submucosal fibroids should be removed via hysteroscopy in symptomatic or infertile patients. Intramural and subserosal fibroids may be removed via an open or laparoscopic approach. There are several minimally invasive options, including uterine artery embolisation, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound and endometrial ablation, but patients should be aware that there is insufficient evidence to ensure fertility preservation with these procedures and further research is needed. Areas for additional research include cost-effectiveness of treatments and quality of life comparisons between management options using patient reported outcome measures to evaluate patient satisfaction.
Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is common and debilitating, and often requires surgery due to hormonal side effects from medical therapies. Here we show that transient, physiological hypoxia occurs in the menstrual endometrium to stabilise hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and drive repair of the denuded surface. We report that women with HMB have decreased endometrial HIF-1α during menstruation and prolonged menstrual bleeding. In a mouse model of simulated menses, physiological endometrial hypoxia occurs during bleeding. Maintenance of mice under hyperoxia during menses decreases HIF-1α induction and delays endometrial repair. The same effects are observed upon genetic or pharmacological reduction of endometrial HIF-1α. Conversely, artificial induction of hypoxia by pharmacological stabilisation of HIF-1α rescues the delayed endometrial repair in hypoxia-deficient mice. These data reveal a role for HIF-1 in the endometrium and suggest its pharmacological stabilisation during menses offers an effective, non-hormonal treatment for women with HMB.
Conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene (CE/BZA) is indicated to treat moderate/severe menopausal vasomotor symptoms and prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis. This analysis examines the impact of the most bothersome vaginal symptom at baseline on effects of CE/BZA.