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Concept: Men who have sex with men


Although bisexual men are known to be less likely to disclose their sexual orientation to others than gay men, the reasons why bisexual men choose or feel unable to disclose have received minimal research attention. To examine the reasons behaviorally bisexual men offer for not disclosing to their friends, family, and female partners, in-depth interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 203 men who had not disclosed their same-sex behavior to their female sexual partners in New York City. Men were recruited from multiple venues and online sources using a targeted sampling approach. Transcripts were thematically analyzed using Atlas.ti software. Contrary to the theory that non-disclosure is due to uncertainty about one’s sexual identity, the reasons offered for non-disclosure revealed that it was largely a method to avoid stigmatizing reactions from others. Men reported a number of specific reasons for non-disclosure, including (1) anticipation of negative emotional reactions; (2) anticipation of negative changes in relationships; (3) belief that others held stigmatizing attitudes toward homosexuality; (4) prior experience with negative reactions to disclosure; (5) wanting to maintain others' perceptions of him; (6) fear that those told would disclose to additional people; and (7) fear of rejection due to culture or religion. These findings provide insights into the reasons why many behaviorally bisexual men choose not to disclose, potential reasons why bisexual and gay men differ in the extent to which they disclose, and potential reasons why some bisexual men report greater emotional distress than gay men. Further, they suggest that greater attention needs to be placed on addressing the stigmatizing contexts that confront bisexual men and providing them with strategies to manage stigma.

Concepts: LGBT, Gender, Gender identity, Sexual orientation, Homosexuality, Bisexuality, Men who have sex with men, Gay


Young men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, but it remains unclear whether there are differences in HIV risk behaviors between self-identified gay and bisexual young men. To address this, the current study examined differences in condomless sex and substance use before sex with male partners between self-identified gay and bisexual young men who are HIV-negative. Additionally, we examined differences in HIV risk behaviors with male versus female partners among the bisexual men. We used four waves of data spanning 24 months from a cohort of young MSM ages 16-29. At each wave, participants reported on up to four partners, allowing us to examine within-person associations. Compared to gay men, bisexual men reported more insertive condomless anal sex (CAS) with casual partners, they were more likely to report marijuana use before sex, and they were less likely to report lifetime HIV testing and PrEP use. Alcohol and marijuana use before sex were associated with CAS for both gay and bisexual men, but the association between marijuana use and insertive CAS was stronger for bisexual men. Bisexual men reported more condomless sex with female partners compared to male partners, but this was not significant after accounting for alcohol and marijuana use. Bisexual men were more likely to report alcohol and marijuana use with female partners compared to male partners, but both alcohol and marijuana use were associated with condomless sex regardless of partner gender. Findings support the need for tailored HIV prevention for self-identified bisexual men to address their lack of preventive behaviors, their increased engagement in certain risk behaviors with male partners, and their engagement in risk behaviors with female partners.

Concepts: Male, Reproduction, Female, Gender, Sex, Homosexuality, Bisexuality, Men who have sex with men


Based on resilience theory, this paper investigates the influence of key health indicators and risk and protective factors on health outcomes (including general health, disability, and depression) among lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) older adults.

Concepts: LGBT, Mental disorder, Schizophrenia, Sexual orientation, Homosexuality, Bisexuality, Men who have sex with men, Gay


Background: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) has increased in recent years. It is commonly cited as a sexual-enhancement drug. There is, however, little evidence for factors associated with GHB use or the consequences of its use among GBM. Aim: Factors associated with GHB use, its relationship to sexual risk behaviour, and the contexts, consequences, and motivations for its use were examined. Methods: The Following Lives Undergoing Change (Flux) Study is an online prospective observational study of Australian GBM. At baseline, a total of 3190 GBM provided details about their use of GHB. Data on frequency, methods, pleasures and consequences of their drug use, alongside key demographic variables were collected. Results: Mean age was 35.0 years. One in five men (19.5%) had a history of GHB use and 5.4% reported use within the past 6 months, with 2.7% having used it monthly or more frequently. Overdose had been experienced by 14.7%, this was more common among men who used GHB at least monthly. Being HIV-positive, having more gay friends, greater social engagement with gay men who use drugs, a greater number of sexual partners, group sex, and condomless anal intercourse with casual partners were independently associated with GHB use in the past 6 months. Greater social engagement with gay men who use drugs and group sex were independently associated with at least monthly use. More frequent GHB use was independently associated with experiencing overdose among GHB users. Conclusion: Most men used GHB infrequently and it was often used explicitly to enhance sexual experiences, often in the context of intensive sex partying. Men who used GHB frequently, were at greater risk of overdose and other negative health outcomes. GHB use should be considered alongside other drugs that have been implicated in sexual risk behaviour and HIV transmission. Harm-reduction interventions need to consider the particular impact of frequent GHB use.

Concepts: HIV, LGBT, Observational study, Drug addiction, Homosexuality, Bisexuality, Anal sex, Men who have sex with men


Advances in production and distribution of sexually explicit media (SEM) online have resulted in widespread use among men. Limited research has compared contexts of use and behaviors viewed in Internet SEM by sexual identity. The current study examined differences in recent SEM use (past 6 months) by sexual identity among an ethnically diverse sample of 821 men who completed an online survey in 2015. Both gay and bisexual men reported significantly more frequent use of Internet SEM compared to heterosexual men. Although most participants reported viewing SEM at home (on a computer, tablet, or smartphone), significantly more gay men reported SEM use at a sex party or commercial sex venue than either heterosexual or bisexual men. Sexual identity predicted viewing of high-risk and protective behaviors in separate logistic regression models. Specifically, compared to heterosexual men, gay and bisexual men had increased odds of viewing condomless anal sex (gay OR 5.20, 95 % CI 3.35-8.09; bisexual OR 3.99, 95 % CI 2.24-7.10) and anal sex with a condom (gay OR 3.93, 95 % CI 2.64-5.83; bisexual OR 4.59, 95 % CI 2.78-7.57). Compared to gay men, heterosexual and bisexual men had increased odds of viewing condomless vaginal sex (heterosexual OR 27.08, 95 % CI 15.25-48.07; bisexual OR 5.59, 95 % CI 3.81-8.21) and vaginal sex with a condom (heterosexual OR 7.90, 95 % CI 5.19-12.03; bisexual OR 4.97, 95 % CI 3.32-7.44). There was also evidence of identity discrepant SEM viewing as 20.7 % of heterosexual-identified men reported viewing male same-sex behavior and 55.0 % of gay-identified men reported viewing heterosexual behavior. Findings suggest the importance of assessing SEM use across media types and contexts and have implications for research to address the potential influence of SEM on sexual behavior (e.g., investigate associations between viewing condomless vaginal sex and engaging in high-risk encounters with female partners).

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Human sexual behavior, Human sexuality, Sexual orientation, Homosexuality, Bisexuality, Men who have sex with men, Heterosexuality


The Army implemented a comprehensive HIV characterization program in 2012 following repeal of the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell (DADT) policy banning openly homosexual individuals from serving in the United States military. Program staff administered a standardized case report form (CRF) to soldiers newly-diagnosed with HIV from 2012 to 2014 in compliance with new program requirements. The CRF documented socio-demographic, sexual and other risk behavior information elicited from Army regulation-mandated epidemiologic interviews at initial HIV notification. A majority of HIV-infected soldiers were male and of black/African American racial origin. In the HIV risk period, male soldiers commonly reported male-male sexual contact, civilian partners, online partner-seeking, unprotected anal sex, and expressed surprise at having a positive HIV result. DADT repeal allows for risk screening and reduction interventions targeting a newly-identifiable risk category in the Army. At risk populations need to be identified and assessed for possible unmet health needs.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial No Derivatives 3.0 License, which permits downloading and sharing the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, United States, United States Army, Homosexuality, Anal sex, Men who have sex with men, Creative Commons, United States armed forces


Preexposure prophylaxis has transformed HIV prevention, becoming widespread in communities of gay and bisexual men in the developed world in a short time. There is a broad concern that preexposure prophylaxis will discourage condom use among gay men (i.e., “risk compensation”). This commentary argues for broadening the focus on gay men’s health beyond sexual health to address the holistic health and well-being of gay men. Gay men may benefit from being offered candid, nonjudgmental health promotion/HIV prevention messages not requiring condom use for anal sex. Lessons can be drawn from the family planning movement, which has undergone a similar shift in focus. The principle of patient centeredness supports such a shift in gay men’s health toward the goal of providing men with the knowledge to evaluate various prevention approaches according to the specifics of their life circumstances and health needs. Bringing more nuance to discussions of sexual risk and sexual pleasure could facilitate more universally healthy attitudes regarding sex among gay men, in turn enabling healthier decisions more compatible with men’s own values and preferences.

Concepts: Family planning, Health, Reproductive health, Condom, Homosexuality, Bisexuality, Anal sex, Men who have sex with men


Practising unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with high numbers of partners is associated with increased risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Our aim was to describe factors associated with UAI with multiple partners in a large sample of MSM from 38 European countries recruited for an online survey in 2010.

Concepts: Human sexual behavior, Chlamydia infection, Homosexuality, Sodomy, Anal sex, Anal–oral sex, Men who have sex with men, Anal eroticism


To examine alcohol and drug use during unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), and whether use is associated with HIV-related risk behaviours among gay and bisexual men in Scotland.

Concepts: Drug addiction, Homosexuality, Sodomy, Anal sex, Men who have sex with men, Anal eroticism, Strap-on dildo


Knowledge of HIV status can be important in reducing the risk of HIV exposure. In a European sample of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM), we aimed to identify factors associated with HIV serostatus disclosure to the most recent anal intercourse (AI) partner. We also aimed to describe the impact of HIV serostatus disclosure on HIV exposure risks.

Concepts: Scientific method, Risk, Logic, Sodomy, Anal sex, Men who have sex with men, Most recent common ancestor, Early case assessment