SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Medical history

89

In assessing the fallout of implementing electronic health records, transitional chaos must be distinguished from enduring harm. But faith that EHRs will inevitably evolve in ways that help, rather than hinder, medical care may be misplaced.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Health, Illness, Electronic health record, Health science, Health informatics, Medical history

30

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to estimate and compare the prevalence of fibromyalgia by two different methods, in Olmsted County, Minnesota. METHODS: The first method was a retrospective review of medical records of potential cases of fibromyalgia in Olmsted County using Rochester Epidemiology Project (from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009) to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed fibromyalgia in clinical practice. The second method was a random survey of adults in Olmsted County using the fibromyalgia research survey criteria to estimate the percentage of responders who met fibromyalgia research survey criteria. RESULTS: Of the 3,410 potential patients identified by the first method, 1,115 had a fibromyalgia diagnosis documented in the medical record by a health care provider. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed fibromyalgia by this method was 1.1%. By the second method, of the 2,994 people who received the survey by mail, 830 (27.6%) responded and 44 (5.3%) met fibromyalgia research survey criteria. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of fibromyalgia in the general population of Olmsted County by this method was estimated at 6.4%. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the rate at which fibromyalgia is being diagnosed in a community. This is also the first report of prevalence as assessed by the fibromyalgia research survey criteria. Our results suggest that patients, particularly men, who meet the fibromyalgia research survey criteria are unlikely to have been given a diagnosis of fibromyalgia. © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Medicine, Statistics, Physical examination, Medical history, Rochester, Minnesota, Olmsted County, Minnesota

28

Documented envenomations by the pygmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius barbouri) are rare. While there have been no documented fatalities, several older case reports describe significant morbidity. We describe the first known case of pygmy rattlesnake envenomation that was treated with Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab Antivenom (CroFab(®)). CASE: A 28-year-old man with no significant past medical history presented after being envenomated on the right hand by his friend’s pet pygmy rattlesnake. He developed swelling and pain in his hand and forearm. He responded well to a ten vial loading dose and a 18 h maintenance protocol of CroFab and was discharged the following day without developing any hematological or electrolyte derangements. CONCLUSION: This is the first documented use of CroFab for S. m. barbouri envenomation. The outcome of this case suggests that CroFab is a safe treatment modality in this setting.

Concepts: Rattlesnake, Crotalinae, Antivenom, Medical history, Reptiles of the United States, Sistrurus miliarius, Sistrurus, Sistrurus miliarius barbouri

28

Background: Concha bullosa is the pneumatisation of intranasal conchae (usually the middle turbinate, and rarely the inferior or superior turbinate); however, the term is generally used to describe aeration of the middle concha. Superior concha bullosa is a rare finding, and only a few cases of inferior concha bullosa have been reported in the medical literature. When symptomatic, concha bullosa may cause various problems including nasal congestion, headache, postnasal drip, anosmia and, sometimes, epiphora. Methodology: Computed tomography, following history-taking and physical examination, is a valuable tool in diagnosing turbinate pneumatisation. This article presents a very rare case with bilateral triple conchae pneumatisations. Results: The symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment options for cases of multiple concha bullosa are discussed. The surgical interventions performed in the presented case are briefly described. Conclusion: The presented patient had pneumatisation of all six turbinates. In such cases, we propose that this condition be termed ‘conchae bullosis’ rather than ‘conchae bullosa’, in a similar fashion to the use of nasal polyposis as the plural form of nasal polyp.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Medical imaging, English language, Case, Physical examination, Medical history, Concha bullosa, Grammatical number

27

OBJECTIVE: There is a growing realisation that clinical pathways (CPs) are vital for improving the treatment quality of healthcare organisations. However, treatment personalisation is one of the main challenges when implementing CPs, and the inadequate dynamic adaptability restricts the practicality of CPs. The purpose of this study is to improve the practicality of CPs using semantic interoperability between knowledge-based CPs and semantic electronic health records (EHRs). METHODS: Simple protocol and resource description framework query language is used to gather patient information from semantic EHRs. The gathered patient information is entered into the CP ontology represented by web ontology language. Then, after reasoning over rules described by semantic web rule language in the Jena semantic framework, we adjust the standardised CPs to meet different patients' practical needs. RESULTS: A CP for acute appendicitis is used as an example to illustrate how to achieve CP customisation based on the semantic interoperability between knowledge-based CPs and semantic EHRs. A personalised care plan is generated by comprehensively analysing the patient’s personal allergy history and past medical history, which are stored in semantic EHRs. Additionally, by monitoring the patient’s clinical information, an exception is recorded and handled during CP execution. According to execution results of the actual example, the solutions we present are shown to be technically feasible. CONCLUSION: This study contributes towards improving the clinical personalised practicality of standardised CPs. In addition, this study establishes the foundation for future work on the research and development of an independent CP system.

Concepts: Ontology, Electronic health record, Semantic Web, Medical history, Interoperability, Resource Description Framework, Web Ontology Language, Swoogle

26

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are markers of inflammatory conditions and have been used extensively by clinicians both in outpatient and inpatient settings. It is important to understand the physiologic principles behind these two tests so clinicians may use them appropriately. For example, fibrinogen (for which ESR is an indirect measure) has a much longer half-life than CRP, making ESR helpful in monitoring chronic inflammatory conditions, whereas CRP is more useful in diagnosis as well as in monitoring responses to therapy in acute inflammatory conditions, such as acute infections. Many factors can result in falsely high or low ESR and CRP levels, and it is important to take note of these. Therefore, if used wisely, ESR and CRP can be complementary to good history taking and physical examination in the diagnosis and monitoring of inflammatory conditions. [Pediatr Ann. 2014;43(10):417-420.].

Concepts: Inflammation, Medical terms, Red blood cell, Medical diagnosis, C-reactive protein, Physical examination, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Medical history

26

Cough is probably the most common cause of seeking medical care in pediatric practice. Most acute cough is caused by infection and usually resolves within less than 4 weeks. If it lasts longer, it is considered chronic and deserves investigation to identify the underlying cause, which can be almost any of a wide variety of illnesses of the respiratory tract and certain extrathoracic conditions. This review provides an optimal approach for diagnosis through a skillful history taking, physical examination, and selection of appropriate tests. [Pediatr Ann. 2014;43(8):e176-e183.].

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Medical terms, Chronic, Illness, Medical diagnosis, Physical examination, Medical history

25

Downtimes of the laboratory information system (LIS) or its interface to the electronic medical record (EMR) disrupt the reporting of laboratory results. Traditionally, laboratories have relied on paper-based or phone-based reporting methods during these events.

Concepts: Medicine, Electronic medical record, Medical record, 21st century, Medical laboratory, Medical informatics, Medical history, Hospital information system

21

Study Design Groin pain is common in athletes participating in multidirectional sports and has traditionally been considered a difficult problem to understand, diagnose, and manage. This may be due to sparse historical focus on this complex region in sports medicine. Until recently, there was no agreement regarding terminology, definitions, and classification of groin pain in athletes. This has made clear communication between clinicians difficult, and the results of research difficult to interpret and implement into practice. However, during the past decade the field has evolved rapidly, and an evidence-based understanding is now emerging. This clinical commentary discusses the clinical examination (subjective history, screening, physical examination); imaging; testing of impairments, function, and performance, and; management of athletes with groin pain in an evidence-based framework. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 6 Mar 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7850.

Concepts: Medicine, Medical diagnosis, Problem solving, Physical examination, Mental status examination, Medical history, Inspection, General medical examination

21

Personal health records (PHRs) offer a tremendous opportunity to generate consumer support in pursing the triple aim of reducing costs, increasing access, and improving care quality. Moreover, surveys in the United States indicate that consumers want Web-based access to their medical records. However, concerns that consumers' low health information literacy levels and physicians' resistance to sharing notes will limit PHRs' utility to a relatively small portion of the population have reduced both the product innovation and policy imperatives.

Concepts: Health care, United States, Electronic health record, Medical record, Literacy, Medical informatics, Medical history, Personal health record