SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Medical error

166

The way hemodynamic therapies are delivered today in anesthesia and critical care is suboptimal. Hemodynamic variables are not always understood correctly and used properly. The adoption of hemodynamic goal-directed strategies, known to be clinically useful, is poor. Ensuring therapies are delivered effectively is the goal of decision support tools and closed loop systems. Graphical displays (metaphor screens) may help clinicians to better capture and integrate the multivariable hemodynamic information. This may result in faster and more accurate diagnosis and therapeutic decisions. Graphical displays (target screens) have the potential to increase adherence to goal-directed strategies and ultimately improve patients' outcomes, but this remains to be confirmed by prospective studies. Closed loop systems are the ultimate solution to ensure therapies are delivered. However, most therapeutic decisions cannot be based on a limited number of output variables. Therefore, one should focus on the development of systems designed to relieve clinicians from very simple and repetitive tasks. Whether intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy may be one of these tasks remains to be evaluated.

Concepts: Medicine, Therapy, Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals, Decision theory, Control theory, Decision support system, Graphic design, Medical error

29

In the Southwestern United States, the venom of the scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus (common name bark scorpion) can cause serious and potentially fatal neurotoxicity, with young children most vulnerable to its effects. Historically, advances in the quality of supportive care have made significant improvements in morbidity and mortality. In recent years, the development of effective antivenom therapies has changed the landscape of caring for these patients. This article reviews the background, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment options for C. sculpturatus envenomation. Recent advances in immunotherapy and subsequent implications for pediatric emergency care providers are discussed.

Concepts: Medicine, United States, Venom, Scorpion, Medical error, Buthidae, Centruroides exilicauda, Mac Gargan

28

Aspirin sensitivity syndrome is an underdiagnosed entity in pediatric otolaryngology. The diagnosis must be considered in a pediatric non-cystic fibrosis patient with florid nasal polyposis. In this small case series, we will describe 2 patient’s presentation, work up, allergic and surgical therapies and their postoperative course. In doing so, we hope to increase awareness and to illustrate the details that are involved in its diagnosis and treatment.

Concepts: Medicine, Asthma, Physician, Salicylic acid, Medical error, Samter's triad, Salicylate sensitivity

26

Medication error is a frequent, harmful and costly patient safety incident. Research to date has mostly focused on medication errors in hospitals. In this study, we aimed to identify the main causes of, and solutions to, medication error in primary care.

Concepts: Error, Identification, Iatrogenesis, Hospital accreditation, Patient safety, Medical error, Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act

26

Empty nose syndrome (ENS) is a rare, late complication of turbinate surgery. The most common clinical symptoms are paradoxical nasal obstruction, nasal dryness and crusting, and a persistent feeling of dyspnea. Little is known about the pathogenesis of ENS, though it is speculated that anatomical changes leading to alterations in local environment, disruption of mucosal cooling, and disruption of neurosensory mechanisms are strongly implicated. The diagnosis is clinical, though often difficult to make due to the poor correlation between subjective and objective findings. Medical therapies include mucosal humidification, irrigations, and emollients. Surgical therapy should be reserved for refractory cases and may involve turbinate reconstruction, most commonly using implantable biomaterials. Ultimately, prevention of this feared complication through turbinate-sparing techniques is essential.

Concepts: Medicine, Therapy, Physician, Mucus, Nose, Nasal cavity, Medical error, Empty nose syndrome

26

Abstract Introduction: Errors in medicine and patient safety are topics with growing scientific and public attention. In undergraduate medical education, these issues are little investigated so far. The aim of this study was to collect data regarding attitudes and needs of medical students. Methods: In a sample of 269 German medical students, data were collected using an anonymous online questionnaire. It consisted of three parts: (1) international validated questionnaire, (2) questions about the German medical education system and (3) demographic data. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results: One-hundred sixty-seven data sets were analysed (completion rate 62%). Twenty-five percent of the respondents stated that they already had committed a medical error. Almost half of the participants reported that they had been assigned tasks they had not been qualified for (47%), or where medical errors could have happened easily (50%). Final year students showed less confidence in error disclosure compared to younger students (p < 0.001). The majority of respondents (64%) wished for more education on the issues. Discussion: With regard to future curricular developments, a consideration of attitudes and needs of medical students regarding the topics of medical errors and patient safety seems necessary. A goal-directed undergraduate education can promote an open culture and can lead to safety and satisfaction for both patients and medical professionals.

Concepts: Psychology, Education, Physician, Higher education, Iatrogenesis, Patient safety, Medical error, Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act

25

A new approach to hospital handoffs has shown it can significantly reduce medical errors as well as preventable adverse events. The approach, dubbed the I-PASS bundle, uses a mnemonic to alert providers to all the issues that need to be covered during a handoff, but also includes a written handoff tool, communication training, a sustainability campaign, and a process for feedback. In a study of the I-PASS bundle conducted at nine pediatric hospitals, investigators found that the approach reduced medical errors by 23%, and the rate of preventable adverse events by 30%. Investigators say I-PASS did not increase the amount of time required to conduct a handoff. On average, handoffs in the study took 2.5 minutes per patient. Several medical centers are now implementing the approach hospital-wide, and additional studies into the approach are planned. Developers advise hospitals interested in the approach to first gather data and survey providers to make a case for the intervention.

Concepts: Medicine, Patient, Hospital, Physician, Implementation, Conducting, Medical error, Handoff

20

 To examine the relative risks of iatrogenic and non-iatrogenic injuries during the period shortly before and after a diagnosis of cancer.

Concepts: Relative risk, Medical error

18

Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is caused by a usually small plasma cell clone producing a misfolded light chain that deposits in tissues. Survival is mostly determined by the severity of heart involvement. Recent studies are clarifying the mechanisms of cardiac damage, pointing to a toxic effect of amyloidogenic light chains and offering new potential therapeutic targets. The diagnosis requires adequate technology, available at referral centers, for amyloid typing. Late diagnosis results in approximately 30% of patients presenting with advanced, irreversible organ involvement and dying in a few months despite modern treatments. The availability of accurate biomarkers of clonal and organ disease is reshaping the approach to patients with AL amyloidosis. Screening of early organ damage based on biomarkers can help identifying patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance who are developing AL amyloidosis before they become symptomatic. Staging systems and response assessment based on biomarkers facilitate the design and conduction of clinical trials, guide the therapeutic strategy, and allow the timely identification of refractory patients to be switched to rescue therapy. Treatment should be risk-adapted. Recent studies are linking specific characteristics of the plasma cell clone to response to different types of treatment, moving towards patient-tailored therapy. In addition novel anti-amyloid treatments are being developed that might be combined with anti-plasma cell chemotherapy.

Concepts: Multiple myeloma, Heart, Organ, Amyloid, Chain, Amyloidosis, Congo red, Medical error

12

Candidatus Neoehrlichia is increasingly being recognized worldwide as a tickborne pathogen. We report a case of symptomatic neoehrlichiosis in an immunocompetent Austria resident who had recently returned from travel in Tanzania. The use of Anaplasmataceae-specific PCR to determine the duration of antimicrobial therapy seems reasonable to avert recrudescence.

Concepts: Microbiology, Medical error